(Color online) A composite schematic for the domestic cat auditory periphery. For visualization purposes only, as components are misaligned and of different scales from various sources, including visual photography, imaging, and 3D reconstructions.
(Color online) (a) Isolated temporal bone from a domestic cat cadaver with centimeter scale. (b) image of the isolated temporal bone from a domestic cat, showing (roughly from left to right) a portion of the ear canal, eardrum, cross section of the malleus, tympanic and bulla cavities, and portion of the cochlea. The scan diameter is 21.5 mm.
(Color online) (a) View of the eardrum through the ear canal, showing the manubrium and radial fiber directions (dashed lines). (b) Thickness contours from Kuypers et al. (2005) projected onto the eardrum model. (c) Finite element mesh for the eardrum, dashed lines separating labeled quadrants. (d) Microstructural model of the eardrum, showing the radial thickness profile of the four layers of a representative radial slice from the malleus to the tympanic annulus .
(Color online) Ossicular geometry used in the computational model. Computed center of gravity is indicated, as is the classical axis of rotation (dashed line).
(a) Finite element model of the intact middle ear. (b) Finite element mesh for the middle ear with open middle-ear cavities and absorbing PML boundary conditions.
(Color online) Perforation with cuts and repair with patches of the tympanic membrane along the manubrium: (a) with incomplete patching and (b) with complete patching.
(Color online) Middle-ear impedance, defined as the pressure normalized by the volume velocity in the ear canal , in units of SI acoustic . Finite element simulation compared against measurements by Lynch et al. (1994) , Rosowski et al. (2000) , and Huang et al. (2000) for the closed middle-ear cavity condition.
(Color online) Middle-ear impedance (magnitude and phase) for open cavities. Three conditions considered: [(a) and (b)] intact ossicular chain [(c) and (d)], drained cochlea, and [(e) and (f)] disarticulated stapes. Finite element simulation compared against measurements by Puria and Allen (1998) and Lynch et al. (1994) .
(Color online) Middle-ear pressure gain, defined as the pressure in cochlea vestibule normalized by pressure in the ear canal. Closed middle-ear cavity finite element simulation compared against open cavity measurements by Nedzelnitsky (1980) and closed cavity measurements by Decory et al. (1990) .
(Color online) Middle-ear impedance for normal cavities and removal septum. (a) Measurements by Rosowski et al. (2000) and (b) finite element simulation results.
(Color online) Pressure difference at oval and round windows computed by using the coupled model with and without the septum.
(Color online) Stapes velocity, normalized by the ear canal pressure, for three simulated conditions with open cavities: intact tympanic membrane, four circumferential cuts with one left unpatched, and four cuts all patched.
(Color online) Same as Fig. 14 except with four cuts all patched using (1) a low stiffness and normal density material, (2) a low stiffness and low density material, (3) a high stiffness and normal density material, and (4) a high stiffness and high density material.
(Color online) Relative displacement of the posterior region of the tympanic membrane to the displacement at the umbo. Finite element simulation compared to similar simulation with 10% shear modulus and against relevant measurements.
Material properties of the eardrum model.
Mass and principle moments of inertia of the malleus-incus complex.
Parameter values for the suspensory ligaments, as applied to the center of gravity and the incudostapedial joint.
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