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Finite element modeling of acousto-mechanical coupling in the cat middle ear
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10.1121/1.2912438
/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/1/10.1121/1.2912438
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/1/10.1121/1.2912438

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) A composite schematic for the domestic cat auditory periphery. For visualization purposes only, as components are misaligned and of different scales from various sources, including visual photography, imaging, and 3D reconstructions.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Isolated temporal bone from a domestic cat cadaver with centimeter scale. (b) image of the isolated temporal bone from a domestic cat, showing (roughly from left to right) a portion of the ear canal, eardrum, cross section of the malleus, tympanic and bulla cavities, and portion of the cochlea. The scan diameter is 21.5 mm.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) View of the eardrum through the ear canal, showing the manubrium and radial fiber directions (dashed lines). (b) Thickness contours from Kuypers et al. (2005) projected onto the eardrum model. (c) Finite element mesh for the eardrum, dashed lines separating labeled quadrants. (d) Microstructural model of the eardrum, showing the radial thickness profile of the four layers of a representative radial slice from the malleus to the tympanic annulus .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Ossicular geometry used in the computational model. Computed center of gravity is indicated, as is the classical axis of rotation (dashed line).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Finite element model of the intact middle ear. (b) Finite element mesh for the middle ear with open middle-ear cavities and absorbing PML boundary conditions.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Perforation with cuts and repair with patches of the tympanic membrane along the manubrium: (a) with incomplete patching and (b) with complete patching.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Middle-ear impedance, defined as the pressure normalized by the volume velocity in the ear canal , in units of SI acoustic . Finite element simulation compared against measurements by Lynch et al. (1994) , Rosowski et al. (2000) , and Huang et al. (2000) for the closed middle-ear cavity condition.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Middle-ear impedance (magnitude and phase) for open cavities. Three conditions considered: [(a) and (b)] intact ossicular chain [(c) and (d)], drained cochlea, and [(e) and (f)] disarticulated stapes. Finite element simulation compared against measurements by Puria and Allen (1998) and Lynch et al. (1994) .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Displacement of the umbo (magnitude and phase). Finite element simulation compared against measurements by Decraemer et al. (1989) and Khanna and Tonndorf (1972) .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Relative displacement of (a) posterior and (b) anterior regions of tympanic membrane to the displacement at the umbo. Finite element simulation compared against corresponding measurements by Decraemer et al. (1989) and Khanna and Tonndorf (1972) .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Middle-ear pressure gain, defined as the pressure in cochlea vestibule normalized by pressure in the ear canal. Closed middle-ear cavity finite element simulation compared against open cavity measurements by Nedzelnitsky (1980) and closed cavity measurements by Decory et al. (1990) .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Middle-ear impedance for normal cavities and removal septum. (a) Measurements by Rosowski et al. (2000) and (b) finite element simulation results.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Pressure difference at oval and round windows computed by using the coupled model with and without the septum.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Stapes velocity, normalized by the ear canal pressure, for three simulated conditions with open cavities: intact tympanic membrane, four circumferential cuts with one left unpatched, and four cuts all patched.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Same as Fig. 14 except with four cuts all patched using (1) a low stiffness and normal density material, (2) a low stiffness and low density material, (3) a high stiffness and normal density material, and (4) a high stiffness and high density material.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) Relative displacement of the posterior region of the tympanic membrane to the displacement at the umbo. Finite element simulation compared to similar simulation with 10% shear modulus and against relevant measurements.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Material properties of the eardrum model.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Mass and principle moments of inertia of the malleus-incus complex.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Parameter values for the suspensory ligaments, as applied to the center of gravity and the incudostapedial joint.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/1/10.1121/1.2912438
2008-07-01
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Finite element modeling of acousto-mechanical coupling in the cat middle ear
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/1/10.1121/1.2912438
10.1121/1.2912438
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