Temporal emission patterns of Tadarida vocalizations. (a) and (b) are multisyllabic calls with clumped syllable distributions and syllables are never emitted singly. (c) Monosyllabic calls with a uniform syllable distribution and (d) monosyllabic calls with a random distribution. (a) Maternal directives, (b) irritation calls, (c) mounting calls, and (d) marking calls.
Spectrograms of calls emitted by T. brasiliensis. (a) Three herding calls, (b) four marking calls [also see Fig. 1(d)], (c) four mounting calls [also see Fig. 1(c)], (d) three isolation calls, (e) one directive call [also see Fig. 1(a)], (f) one irritation call [also see Fig. 1(b)], (g) two protest calls (each call is from a different bat), (h) two warning calls (each call is from a different bat), (i) face-rubbing call, (j) nose-rubbing call, (k) investigation clicks, (l) food click, (m) food solicitation call, (n) two alarm calls (each call is from a different bat), and (o) four echolocation calls.
Territorial/courtship song. (a) One complete song showing the three types of phrases: chirp, buzz, and trill. (b) Expanded section of a chirp, which has two types of syllables: types A and B. (c) Expanded section of a trill. (d) Expanded section of a buzz.
Spectrograms of syllable types. (a) Clicks, rubbing, , and click. (b) Brief downward frequency modulated syllables (down FMs), , buzz, trill, , solicitation, , and chirp type A. [(c) and (d)] Long syllables, , , , , , , rubbing, , and chirp type B.
Cannonical functions from discriminant function analyses. (a) All syllables fell into three distinct types. Function 1 was correlated with duration and function 2 was correlated with peak frequency . The lines depict 80% normal bivariate density ellipses. (b) Down FM syllables. Function 1 was correlated with all variables. Function 2 was correlated with end and peak frequencies. We recognized two syllable subgroups: The first subgroup consisted of echolocation (EC), escape (ES), food solicitation (FS), and song chirp type A (SCA) syllables (open symbols) and the second subgroup consisted of irritation (IR), song buzz (SB), herding (HE), and song trill (ST) syllables (filled symbols). [(c) and (d)] Long syllables. Function 1 was correlated with frequency features, function 2 was most correlated with duration (c), and function 3 was most correlated with maximum frequency (d). , directive, rubbing, , , , , and chirp type B. The lines depict 80% normal bivariate density ellipses.
Results of chi-squared tests on the distribution of syllables over time.
Results of bout analyses for multisyllabic calls. -squared values for the two-process nonlinear models, intercall threshold from two-process models, median, range, and coefficient of variation ( deviation/mean) of the number of syllables per call, the interval between syllables within calls , and sample sizes. Nonlinear models were not fitted to face-rubbing and nose-rubbing calls because we did not have intercall interval data (see text).
of down FM syllable measurements.
of long syllable measurements (ms and kHz).
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