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Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats
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10.1121/1.2953314
/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/3/10.1121/1.2953314
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/3/10.1121/1.2953314

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Temporal emission patterns of Tadarida vocalizations. (a) and (b) are multisyllabic calls with clumped syllable distributions and syllables are never emitted singly. (c) Monosyllabic calls with a uniform syllable distribution and (d) monosyllabic calls with a random distribution. (a) Maternal directives, (b) irritation calls, (c) mounting calls, and (d) marking calls.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Spectrograms of calls emitted by T. brasiliensis. (a) Three herding calls, (b) four marking calls [also see Fig. 1(d)], (c) four mounting calls [also see Fig. 1(c)], (d) three isolation calls, (e) one directive call [also see Fig. 1(a)], (f) one irritation call [also see Fig. 1(b)], (g) two protest calls (each call is from a different bat), (h) two warning calls (each call is from a different bat), (i) face-rubbing call, (j) nose-rubbing call, (k) investigation clicks, (l) food click, (m) food solicitation call, (n) two alarm calls (each call is from a different bat), and (o) four echolocation calls.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Territorial/courtship song. (a) One complete song showing the three types of phrases: chirp, buzz, and trill. (b) Expanded section of a chirp, which has two types of syllables: types A and B. (c) Expanded section of a trill. (d) Expanded section of a buzz.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Spectrograms of syllable types. (a) Clicks, rubbing, , and click. (b) Brief downward frequency modulated syllables (down FMs), , buzz, trill, , solicitation, , and chirp type A. [(c) and (d)] Long syllables, , , , , , , rubbing, , and chirp type B.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Cannonical functions from discriminant function analyses. (a) All syllables fell into three distinct types. Function 1 was correlated with duration and function 2 was correlated with peak frequency . The lines depict 80% normal bivariate density ellipses. (b) Down FM syllables. Function 1 was correlated with all variables. Function 2 was correlated with end and peak frequencies. We recognized two syllable subgroups: The first subgroup consisted of echolocation (EC), escape (ES), food solicitation (FS), and song chirp type A (SCA) syllables (open symbols) and the second subgroup consisted of irritation (IR), song buzz (SB), herding (HE), and song trill (ST) syllables (filled symbols). [(c) and (d)] Long syllables. Function 1 was correlated with frequency features, function 2 was most correlated with duration (c), and function 3 was most correlated with maximum frequency (d). , directive, rubbing, , , , , and chirp type B. The lines depict 80% normal bivariate density ellipses.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Results of chi-squared tests on the distribution of syllables over time.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Results of bout analyses for multisyllabic calls. -squared values for the two-process nonlinear models, intercall threshold from two-process models, median, range, and coefficient of variation ( deviation/mean) of the number of syllables per call, the interval between syllables within calls , and sample sizes. Nonlinear models were not fitted to face-rubbing and nose-rubbing calls because we did not have intercall interval data (see text).

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

of down FM syllable measurements.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

of long syllable measurements (ms and kHz).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/3/10.1121/1.2953314
2008-09-01
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/124/3/10.1121/1.2953314
10.1121/1.2953314
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