The power spectrum of an acoustic frame during the production of /i/ by a male speaker, with a 16th order LPC filter response (envelope) and first six LSPs (dark vertical lines).
A subject with illuminated markers (left). The four gestures used in this study (right).
Extracted 3D marker positions showing the oral area between the lips. The polygon connects the four points on the lips.
Overall gesture CCs and NMSEs across sentences.
Distribution of sentence mean CCs, averaged across subjects and gestures.
Predicted (solid line) vs actual (dotted line) trajectories for the four different gestures (jaw, UL, LC, and UL/LL) for the sentence “The museum hires musicians every evening” from subject F3. These data illustrate different combinations for CC and NMSE values.
Correlation between CC and NMSE for jaw predictions for subject M6.
Overscaled predictions for UL from subject M5 for the sentence “Nothing is as offensive as innocence.” As in Fig. 6, solid lines depict predicted trajectories and dotted line depicts actual trajectories.
Top: Sensitivity of CCs to acoustic frame size, using 89-sentence training sets, averaged across subjects. Bottom: Sensitivity of CC to the number of sentences in the training data set using acoustic frame, averaged across subjects.
Single subject, multisubject, and subject averaged transformations, separated by gesture.
Correlation between CCs and NMSEs across subjects.
A comparison of subject-dependent and subject-independent results.
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