Volume 125, Issue 1, January 2009
Index of content:
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
Detection of time-varying harmonic amplitude alterations due to spectral interpolations between musical instrument tones125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3025916View Description Hide Description
Gradated spectral interpolations between musical instrumenttone pairs were used to investigate discrimination as a function of time-averaged spectral difference. All possible nonidentical pairs taken from a collection of eight musical instrument sounds consisting of bassoon,clarinet, flute, horn,oboe,saxophone,trumpet, and violin were tested. For each pair, several tones were generated with different balances between the primary and secondary instruments, where the balance was fixed across the duration of each tone. Among primary instruments it was found that changes to horn and clarinet timbres were most easily discriminable, while changes to saxophone and trumpet timbres were least discriminable. Among secondary instruments, the clarinet had the strongest effect on discrimination, whereas the bassoon had the least effect. For primary instruments, strong negative correlations were found between discrimination and their spectral incoherences, suggesting that the presence of dynamic spectral variations tends to increase the difficulty of detecting time-varying alterations such as spectral interpolation.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3026326View Description Hide Description
This investigation compares vocal tract dimensions and the classification of singervoices by examining an x-raymaterial assembled between 1959 and 1991 of students admitted to the solo singing education at the University of Music, Dresden, Germany. A total of 132 images were available to analysis. Different classifications’ values of the lengths of the total vocal tract, the pharynx, and mouth cavities as well as of the relative position of the larynx, the height of the palatal arch, and the estimated vocal fold length were analyzed statistically, and some significant differences were found. The length of the pharynx cavity seemed particularly influential on the total vocal tract length, which varied systematically with classification. Also studied were the relationships between voice classification and the body height and weight and the body mass index. The data support the hypothesis that there are consistent morphological vocal tract differences between singers of different voice classifications.