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Detecting incipient inner-ear damage from impulse noise with otoacoustic emissions
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10.1121/1.3050304
/content/asa/journal/jasa/125/2/10.1121/1.3050304
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/125/2/10.1121/1.3050304

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Average pre-test and post-test audiometric thresholds for the noise-exposed group by STS status. Average pre-test thresholds for the 42 STS ears (21 left and 21 right ears) were essentially the same as for the 528 no-STS ears (286 left ears and 286 right ears). Post-test audiograms show that the average thresholds for the STS ears increased up to (left ears, ), while the no-STS ears stayed essentially the same. The error bars are 95% confidence intervals.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Average pre-test and post-test TEOAE amplitudes for the noise-exposed group by significant TEOAE shift (SES) status. Average pre-test amplitudes for the SES ears (22–27 left ears and 14–21 right ears) were slightly higher than for the no-SES ears (112–118 left ears and 129–138 right ears). Average post-test TEOAE amplitudes decreased by approximately from pre-test for the SES ears, while the post-test average for the no-SES ears stayed essentially the same. The error bars are 95% confidence intervals. The number of ears contributing to the average at each frequency varied because of some unusable data.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Average pre-test and post-test amplitudes for the noise-exposed group by significant shift (SES) status. Average pre-test amplitudes for the SES ears (16–17 left ears and 25–26 right ears) were slightly higher than the average for the no-SES ears (180–185 left ears and 166–172 right ears). Average post-test amplitudes decreased by approximately from pre-test for the SES ears, while the post-test average for the no-SES ears stayed essentially the same. The error bars are 95% confidence intervals. The number of ears contributing to the average at each frequency varied because of some unusable data.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Average pre-test and post-test amplitudes for the noise-exposed group by significant shift (SES) status. Average pre-test amplitudes for the SES ears (15–16 left ears and 24–26 right ears) were slightly higher than the average for the no-SES ears (201–206 left ears and 188–192 right ears). Average post-test amplitudes decreased by approximately from pre-test for the SES ears, while the post-test average for the no-SES ears stayed essentially the same. The error bars are 95% confidence intervals. The number of ears contributing to the average at each frequency varied because of some unusable data.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

PPV, for the left and right ears separately, as a function of the PPV criterion, which is OAE amplitude (in dB SPL). PPV is the probability that an ear was classified with a STS given an OAE amplitude less than the criterion. As the OAE amplitude decreased, PPV tended to increase for the higher-frequency bands, but not for all OAE types and frequencies. [(a) and (b)] ,[(c) and (d)] , and [(e) and (f)] TEOAEs. The thin solid horizontal line represents the prior probability of a STS averaged over the displayed frequencies.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

PPV at (from Fig. 5 ). for the left and right ears separately, for each OAE type replotted as a function of OAE amplitude in percentiles.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

PPVs as a function of PPV criterion, which in this case is OAE amplitude for the worst ear, which is the way it would be implemented in occupational audiology programs. For each volunteer, the ear with the lowest OAE amplitude was used as the predictor. (a) at 3.6 and , (b) at 3.6 and and (c) TEOAEs at 2, 2.8, and . The thin solid horizontal line represents the prior probability of a STS averaged over the displayed frequencies.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

PPV as a function of OAE amplitude in percentiles for TEOAEs at for the left ears from Fig. 6 (solid line) compared with the same data after excluding ears with audiometric thresholds HL (dashed line).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Comparisons of likelihood ratio as a function of OAE amplitude (in dB SPL), indicating susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss, between the current study (Marine recruits exposed to impulse noise, solid line) and Lapsley Miller et al. (2006) (deployed aircraft carrier sailors exposed to continuous noise overlaid with impact noise, dashed line) for the OAE test frequencies where there were no large differences in the amplitude distributions between the ears: (a) TEOAEs at (half-octave band), (b) at , (c) at , (d) at , and (e) at .

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

The number of ears and the total number of volunteers in each group that contributed to each analysis, listed by the section. The numbers varied at each test frequency, OAE level, and OAE type, because only valid data were used. The exception was for the ANOVAs where volunteers were required to have complete OAE data sets for both ears.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

STS criteria based on the standard error of measurement from the control group (32 volunteers/64 ears) for individual audiometric-threshold frequencies and for averaged frequencies. Shown is the frequency, mean shift between post-testing and pre-testing, , and the resulting STS criteria (see footnote 7). Note that although the STS criteria were calculated for all frequencies, only frequencies from and the averaged frequency bands were used to determine the STS status.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

SES criteria based on the standard error of measurement from the control group (32 volunteers/64 ears). Shown are the OAE type, frequency for DPOAEs or half-octave frequency band for TEOAEs, the number of ears contributing to the calculation, , and the resulting SES criteria (see footnote 7). Note that although the SES criteria were calculated for all valid frequencies, only some frequencies were used to determine the SES status (2.5, 3.2, and for DPOAEs, and 2, 2.8, and for TEOAEs).

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Breakdown of the 285 volunteers in the noise-exposed group by STS status and SES status for the left/right ear and the measurement type. The first number is the count, and the number in parentheses is the overall percentage. The Unknown category represents those ears for which a SES determination could not be made, usually due to unusable data. See text for summaries of STS and SES rates for volunteers and ears.

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

STS vs SES matrices. The first number is the count, and the number in parentheses is the overall percentage. For the left and right ears separately, ears were grouped by whether they were classified as STS and/or SES ears. The unknown-SES category is for those ears where there were unusable data; these ears were not used in the analysis of the matrices.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

STS ears are over-represented in the group of SES ears, compared with the probability of a STS in general. Likewise SES ears are over-represented in the group of STS ears, compared with the probability of a SES in general. This finding holds over the left and right ears and for all three OAE types, except for in the right ears, where representation was proportional, and where OAEs had the highest variability. The pooled category represents the results pooled over the ear and the OAE type. The true SES rate is underestimated because there are likely to be some unidentified SES ears in the large group of unknown-SES ears, where SES status could not be determined at all three frequencies. (For the underlying cell counts, see Table V .)

Generic image for table
TABLE VII.

Maximum increased risk for STS (PPV/base-rate) for each OAE type and frequency, by ear. Each number represents how many times more likely a STS is given a low pre-test OAE result relative to the base rate.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/125/2/10.1121/1.3050304
2009-02-01
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Detecting incipient inner-ear damage from impulse noise with otoacoustic emissions
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/125/2/10.1121/1.3050304
10.1121/1.3050304
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