Index of content:
Volume 125, Issue 2, February 2009
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3050279View Description Hide Description
With the recent success of the Huygens lander on Titan, a moon of Saturn, there has been renewed interest in further exploring the acoustic environments of the other planets in the solar system. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used here for modelingsound propagation in the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, and Titan at a variety of altitudes above the surface. DSMC is a particle method that describes gas dynamics through direct physical modeling of particle motions and collisions. The validity of DSMC for the entire range of Knudsen numbers (Kn), where Kn is defined as the mean free path divided by the wavelength, allows for the exploration of sound propagation in planetary environments for all values of Kn. DSMC results at a variety of altitudes on Earth, Mars, and Titan including the details of nonlinearity, absorption, dispersion, and molecular relaxation in gas mixtures are given for a wide range of Kn showing agreement with various continuum theories at low Kn and deviation from continuum theory at high Kn. Despite large computation time and memory requirements, DSMC is the method best suited to study high altitude effects or where continuum theory is not valid.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3056477View Description Hide Description
The results of acoustic tomographic monitoring of the coherent structures in the lower atmosphere and the effects of these structures on acoustic signal parameters are analyzed in the present study. From the measurements of acoustic travel time fluctuations (periods 1 min–1 h) with distant receivers, the temporal fluctuations of the effective sound speed and wind speed are retrieved along different ray paths connecting an acoustic pulse source and several receivers. By using a coherence analysis of the fluctuations near spatially distanced ray turning points, the internal wave-associated fluctuations are filtered and their spatial characteristics (coherences, horizontal phase velocities, and spatial scales) are estimated. The capability of acoustic tomography in estimating wind shear near ground is shown. A possible mechanism describing the temporal modulation of the near-ground wind field by ducted internal waves in the troposphere is proposed.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2999339View Description Hide Description
An accurate and practical surface impedance boundary condition in the time domain has been developed for application to broadband-frequency simulation in aeroacoustic problems. To show the capability of this method, two kinds of numerical simulations are performed and compared with the analytical/experimental results: one is acoustic wave reflection by a monopole source over an impedance surface and the other is acoustic wave propagation in a duct with a finite impedance wall. Both single-frequency and broadband-frequency simulations are performed within the framework of linearized Euler equations. A high-order dispersion-relation-preserving finite-difference method and a low-dissipation, low-dispersion Runge–Kutta method are used for spatial discretization and time integration, respectively. The results show excellent agreement with the analytical/experimental results at various frequencies. The method accurately predicts both the amplitude and the phase of acoustic pressure and ensures the well-posedness of the broadband time-domain impedance boundary condition.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3058633View Description Hide Description
When a physical object (“a source”) without its own eigenfrequency moves through an acoustically homogeneous medium, the only possible form of acoustic radiation is the emission of Mach shock waves, which appear when the source velocity surpasses sonic speed. In nonhomogeneous media, in nonstationary media, or in the neighborhood of such media, the source motion is accompanied by the so-called “transition” radiation (diffraction or scattering), which has place even when the source moves with subsonic velocity. Key features pertaining to the formation of the acoustical transition scattering in media with fluctuating acoustical parameters are established. To analytically study the effect, the Green’s function method formulated in terms of functional derivatives is used. The relationship between the wave number and frequency, , for acoustic waves is found. The results serve to determine the phasing conditions necessary for opening the transition scattering and Cherenkov radiation channel and to establish the physical explanation for the phenomenon—scattering (transformation) on inhomogeneities of the accompanied source field; i.e., formation of radiation appears when the attached field readjusts back to the equilibrium state after being deformed while passing through the fluctuations of the medium.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3050311View Description Hide Description
A method is presented for the reconstruction of rotating monopole source distributions using acoustic pressures measured on a sideline parallel to the source axis. The method requires no a priori assumptions about the source other than that its strength at the frequency of interest varies sinusoidally in azimuth on the source disk so that the radiated acoustic field is composed of a single circumferential mode. When multiple azimuthal modes are present, the acoustic field can be decomposed into azimuthal modes and the method applied to each mode in sequence. The method proceeds in two stages, first finding an intermediate line source derived from the source distribution and then inverting this line source to find the radial variation in source strength. A far-field form of the radiation integrals is derived, showing that the far-field pressure is a band-limited Fourier transform of the line source, establishing a limit on the quality of source reconstruction, which can be achieved using far-field measurements. The method is applied to simulated data representing wind-tunnel testing of a ducted rotor system (tip Mach number of 0.74) and to control of noise from an automotive cooling fan (tip Mach number of 0.14), studies which have appeared in the literature of source identification.