Volume 125, Issue 2, February 2009
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3035840View Description Hide Description
A description of wave propagation in transversely isotropic porous materials saturated by air with a recent reformulation of the Biot theory is carried out. The description is performed in terms of a transfer matrix method (TMM). The anisotropy is taken into account in the mechanical parameters (elastic constants) and in the acoustical parameters (flow resistivity, tortuosity, and characteristic lengths). As an illustration, the normal surface impedance at normal and oblique incidences of transversely isotropic porous layers is predicted. Comparisons are performed with experimental results.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3058900View Description Hide Description
This paper reports new measurements of the intelligibility of speech in conditions representative of elementary school classrooms. The speech test material was binaurally recorded in simulated classroom conditions and played back to subjects over headphones. Subjects included grade 1, 3, and 6 students (6, 8, and olds) as well as adults. Recognizing that reverberation time is not a complete descriptor of room acoustics conditions, simulated conditions included realistic early-to-late arriving sound ratios as well as varied reverberation time. For conditions of constant signal-to-noise ratio, intelligibility scores increased with decreasing reverberation time. However, for conditions including realistic increases in speech level with varied reverberation time for constant noise level, intelligibility scores were near maximum for a range of reverberation times. Young children’s intelligibility scores benefited from added early reflections of speechsounds similar to adult listeners. The effect of varied reverberation time on the intelligibility of speech for young children was much less than the effect of varied signal-to-noise ratio. The results can be used to help to determine ideal conditions for speech communication in classrooms for younger listeners.