Index of content:
Volume 125, Issue 2, February 2009
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
Blind inversion method using Lamb waves for the complete elastic property characterization of anisotropic plates125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3050253View Description Hide Description
A novel blind inversion method using Lamb wave and mode velocities is proposed for the complete determination of elastic moduli,material symmetries, as well as principal plane orientations of anisotropic plates. The approach takes advantage of genetic algorithm, introduces the notion of “statistically significant” elastic moduli, and utilizes their sensitivities to velocity data to reconstruct the elastic moduli. The unknown material symmetry and the principal planes are then evaluated using the method proposed by Cowin and Mehrabadi [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math.40, 451–476 (1987)]. The blind inversion procedure was verified using simulated ultrasonic velocity data sets on materials with transversely isotropic, orthotropic, and monoclinic symmetries. A modified double ring configuration of the single transmitter and multiple receiver compact array was developed to experimentally validate the blind inversion approach on a quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy composite plate. This technique finds application in the area of material characterization and structural health monitoring of anisotropic platelike structures.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3050307View Description Hide Description
Propagation and reflection of plane elastic waves in the acousto-optic crystals tellurium dioxide, rutile, barium titanate, and mercury halides are examined in the paper. The reflection from a free and flat boundary separating the crystals and the vacuum is investigated in the (001) planes in the case of glancing acoustic incidence on the boundary. The analysis shows that two bulk elastic waves may be reflected from the crystal surface. The energy flow of one of the reflected waves in paratellurite and in the mercury compounds propagates in a quasi-back-direction with respect to the incident energy flow. It is proved that energy flows of the incident and reflected elastic waves are separated by a narrow angle of only a few degrees. It is also found that the relative intensity of the unusually reflected waves is close to a unit in a wide variety of crystal cuts. General conclusions related to acoustic propagation and reflection in crystals have been made based on the examined phenomena in the materials.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3056552View Description Hide Description
The experimental evaluation of the wave number and characteristic impedance of stacked-screen regenerators is described. First, a two-by-two transfer matrix of a stacked-screen regenerator was estimated from pressure measurements performed at four different positions; then, the wave number and characteristic impedance of the regenerator were evaluated using a “capillary-tube-based” theory that models a stacked-screen regenerator as an array of pores having a uniform cross section. The evaluation was applied to seven types of stacked-screen regenerators. The experimental results show that these stacked-screen regenerators can be modeled as arrays of circular-cross-section tubes. Moreover, an empirical equation used to estimate the radius of the circular cross section of the tubes comprising the modeled stacked-screen regenerators was addressed.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3050263View Description Hide Description
In a thermoacoustic prime mover, high acoustic output power can be achieved with a large-diameter stack and with a cavity with a large volume attached at the open end of the resonator containing the stack. The combination of resonator and cavity makes the device Helmholtz-like, with special characteristics of the resonant frequencies and quality factor, . Analysis of its acoustic behavior based on a model of a closed bottle presents features that are useful for the development of such prime movers for energy conversion from heat to sound. In particular, the arrangement produces in the cavity a high sound level, which is determined by the of the system. Comparison with a half-wave resonator type of prime mover, closed at both ends, shows the advantages of the Helmholtz-like device.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3050249View Description Hide Description
Inverse scattering is considered one of the most robust and accurate ultrasonic tomography methods. Most inverse scattering formulations neglect density changes in order to reconstruct sound speed and acoustic attenuation. Some studies available in literature suggest that density distributions can also be recovered using inverse scattering formulations. Two classes of algorithms have been identified. (1) The separation of sound speed and density contributions from reconstructions using constant density inverse scattering algorithms at multiple frequencies. (2) The inversion of the full wave equation including density changes. In this work, the performance of a representative algorithm for each class has been studied for the reconstruction of circular cylinders: the dual frequency distorted Born iterative method (DF-DBIM) and the -matrix formulation. Root mean square error values lower than 30% were obtained with both algorithms when reconstructing cylinders up to eight wavelengths in diameter with moderate density changes. However, in order to provide accurate reconstructions the DF-DBIM and -matrix method required very high signal-to-noise ratios and significantly large bandwidths, respectively. These limitations are discussed in the context of practical experimental implementations.