Index of content:
Volume 125, Issue 3, March 2009
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
An analytical model for turbulence scattered rays in the shadow zone for outdoor sound propagation calculation125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3076928View Description Hide Description
In outdoor sound propagation, an inherent problem of the ray tracing method is its inability to determine the sound pressure level in the shadow zone, where geometrical rays do not penetrate. This is a serious problem in a turbulent atmosphere where significant sound energy will be scattered into the shadow. Empirical corrections that are determined from measurements or numerical simulations are limited to situations within the bounds of the empirical corrections. This paper describes a different approach where the ray tracingmodel is modified analytically into a scattered ray model. Rays are first diffracted from the shadow boundary, which is determined by the geometrical ray paths. The diffracted rays are then scattered by turbulence in their way to the receiver. The amount of scatter is determined from turbulence statistics that are determined from a Gaussian turbulencemodel. Most of the statistics are determined analytically except one element, which is determined empirically from numerical simulations. This turbulence scattered ray model is shown to have good accuracy against calculations based on the parabolic equation, and against previously published measurement data. It was found that the agreement is good both with and without turbulence, at distance up to from the shadow boundary.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3068444View Description Hide Description
For the investigation of the physical processes of human phonation, inhomogeneous synthetic vocal folds were developed to represent the full fluid-structure-acoustic coupling. They consisted of polyurethane rubber with a stiffness in the range of human vocal folds and were mounted in a channel, shaped like the vocal tract in the supraglottal region. This test facility permitted extensive observations of flow-induced vocal fold vibrations, the periodic flow field, and the acoustic signals in the far field of the channel. Detailed measurements were performed applying particle-image velocimetry, a laser-scanning vibrometer, a microphone, unsteady pressure sensors, and a hot-wire probe, with the aim of identifying the physical mechanisms in human phonation. The results support the existence of the Coanda effect during phonation, with the flow attaching to one vocal fold and separating from the other. This behavior is not linked to one vocal fold and changes stochastically from cycle to cycle. The oscillating flow field generates a tonal sound. The broadband noise is presumed to be caused by the interaction of the asymmetric flow with the downstream-facing surfaces of the vocal folds, analogous to trailing-edge noise.