Volume 125, Issue 4, April 2009
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
A correction of random incidence absorption coefficients for the angular distribution of acoustic energy under measurement conditions125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3081392View Description Hide Description
Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between the theoretical absorption coefficient and the reverberation roommeasurement. The angle-weighted absorption coefficient, together with the size correction, agrees satisfactorily with the measuredabsorption data by the reverberation chamber method. At high frequencies and for large samples, the averaged weighting corresponds well with the measurement, whereas at low frequencies and for small panels, the relatively flat distribution agrees better.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3081396View Description Hide Description
Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers' subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found that in different rooms significant changes in the sound power produced by the speaker can be found. It is also found that these changes mainly have to do with the size of the room and to the gain produced by the room. To describe this quality, a new room acoustic quantity called “room gain” is proposed.
A general wave decomposition formula for the measurement of normal incidence sound transmission loss in impedance tube125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3081504View Description Hide Description
Two types of general methods can be found in the literature for the determination of the normal incidence sound transmission loss (nSTL) of acoustical elements. The first one is based on the transfer matrix (TM) approach, and the second one is based on the wavefield decomposition (WD) theory. From all the techniques proposed in the literature, the general TM methods (two-load or two-source location) are the only methods yielding the exact nSTL of an acoustical element without any assumptions on its symmetry and on the termination (i.e., the load). Except for the case of an anechoic termination, there is no method based on the WD theory which yields exact nSTL. This paper presents a general WD method to measure the exact nSTL of an acoustical element without any assumptions on its symmetry and on the termination. Similar to general TM methods for non-symmetrical elements, four microphones and two loads will be required. As a first validation of the method, symmetrical and non-symmetrical porous materials are investigated. Results are discussed and compared with some existing methods and with the classical two-load method. A perfect agreement is found with the classical two-load method.