Index of content:
Volume 125, Issue 4, April 2009
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3081385View Description Hide Description
Parametric array applications in air, such as highly directional parametric loudspeaker systems, usually rely on large radiators to generate the high-intensity primary beams required for nonlinear interactions. However, a conventional transducer, as a primary wave projector, requires a great deal of electrical power because its electroacoustic efficiency is very low due to the large characteristic mechanical impedance in air. The feasibility of a micro-machined ultrasonic transducer as an efficient finite-amplitude wave projector was studied. A piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasonic transducer array consisting of lead zirconate titanate uni-morph elements was designed and fabricated for this purpose. Theoretical and experimental evaluations showed that a micro-machined ultrasonic transducer array can be used as an efficient source transducer for a parametric array in air. The beam patterns and propagation curves of the difference frequency wave and the primary wave generated by the micro-machined ultrasonic transducer array were measured. Although the theoretical results were based on ideal parametric array models, the theoretical data explained the experimental results reasonably well. These experiments demonstrated the potential of micro-machined primary wave projector.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3081530View Description Hide Description
At sufficient gain an ultrasonic feedback circuit rings with a “Larsen” tone that depends on the acoustic properties of the solid body to which it is attached. Because the frequency of this tone may be measured virtually continuously and with high precision, it is potentially capable of responding to fast small changes in materials. Here a tentative theory for Larsen dynamics is introduced and compared with laboratory measurements. Larsen monitoring is then applied to observation of the curing process of a cement paste sample and to studies of “slow dynamics” in which mesoscale nonlinear materials subjected to modest loads experience a drop in modulus but then recover in a characteristic manner like . The present technique, using as it does higher frequencies and the Larsen effect and brief transient loads, extends investigations of slow dynamics to earlier times. For the materials and loads investigated, it is found that behavior fails at the shortest times, recovery being faster over the first several milliseconds.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3083223View Description Hide Description
Acoustic and seismic waves provide a method to localize compliant mines by vibrating the top plate and a thin soil layer above the mine. This vibration is mostly linear, but also includes a small nonlinear deviation. The main goal of this paper is to introduce a method of processing that uses phase-inversion to observe nonlinear effects in a wide frequency band. The method extracts a nonlinear part of surface velocity from two similar broadcast signals of opposite sign by summing and canceling the linear components and leaving the nonlinear components. This phase-inversion method is combined with time reversal focusing to provide increased seismic vibration and enhance the nonlinear effect. The experiments used six loudspeakers in a wood box placed over sand in which inert landmines were buried. The nonlinear surface velocity of the sand with a mine compared to the sand without a mine was greater as compared to a linear technique.