Index of content:
Volume 125, Issue 5, May 2009
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3081390View Description Hide Description
This study investigated the effect of a spatial factor, the magnitude of interaural cross-correlation (IACC) function, on subjective responses to heavy-weight floor impact sounds. Heavy-weight impact sounds were generated by a heavy/soft impact source (impact ball) in real apartments, so that impact sound pressure levels (SPLs) and IACC could be analyzed. Just noticeable differences (JNDs) of impact SPL and IACC were investigated through the use of impact ball sounds. JNDs were determined by the criteria of 75% correct answers by participants, and it was found that JNDs of impact SPL and IACC were around 1.5 dB and 0.12–0.13, respectively. In addition, the annoyance caused by an impact ball was evaluated by changes in these two parameters. The results show that annoyance increased with increasing impact SPL and with decreasing IACC; the contributions of the two parameters to the scale value of annoyance were 79.3% and 20.4%, respectively. This indicates that the effects of IACC should be considered for the evaluation of annoyance, and the subjective response to impact ball sounds can be improved by controlling IACC, as well as impact SPL.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3097494View Description Hide Description
To investigate the physical principle governing the level-dependent attenuation of a perforated earplug, a mathematical model is first established with the transfer-matrix method to calculate the noise reduction through a simplified device, one perforated panel with back cavity, mounted in an impedance tube. The model prediction is compared with the measurednoise reduction through two series of large-scale devices and one device with the dimensions of the ear canal under continuous noise and sinusoidal excitations. The model helps to improve significantly the level-dependent attenuation of the large-scale device. It also illustrates that the attenuation is not solely determined by the resistance of the orifice, which has been a well accepted design concept, but resulted from an incorporated effect of the acoustic filter comprised of the acoustic impedance of the orifice and other elements in the earplug-ear-canal system. This mechanism can interpret a resonance at low incident levels on improper design and reveal approaches to eliminate it. Finally, the model’s potential contributions to the design of a perforated earplug are discussed, along with the threshold of level-dependent attenuation supported with experimental evidence.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3110131View Description Hide Description
Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners’ head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3095802View Description Hide Description
Environmental appraisals of transport infrastructure plans are generally conducted in situations where there will be a step change, or an abrupt change, in noise exposure. While there has been a number of studies of response to step changes in exposure, and seven previous reviews of subsets of these studies, understanding of human response to a change in noise exposure remains limited. Building largely on these previous reviews, this paper examines the evidence that when noise exposure is changed, subjective reaction may not change in the way that would be predicted from steady-state exposure-response relationships. The weight of evidence, while not incontrovertible, is that when exposure changes, responses show an excess response compared to responses predicted from steady-state exposure-response relationships. That is, there is a change effect in addition to an exposure effect—at least for road studies and at least where the change in exposure results from changes at the source. Further, there appears to be little, if any, adaptation of this excess response with time.
125(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3109980View Description Hide Description
Accurate predictions of environmental noise levels are necessary to implement noise reduction strategies in urban areas. In this paper, a stochastic model is introduced to describe and predict the , , , and levels. A Gaussian Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model is used to represent the dynamics of the noise levels, where the mean-reversion properties and seasonal volatility for each day of the week are studied separately.