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Distortion-product otoacoustic emission input/output characteristics in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired human ears
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10.1121/1.3158859
/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/2/10.1121/1.3158859
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/2/10.1121/1.3158859

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Median DPOAE levels (solid lines) as a function of stimulus level. Each panel shows four different HL categories (0, 20, 40, and 60 dB HLs) at the indicated frequency. The HL category is indicated by the line weight from heavy (0 dB HL) to light (60 dB HL). The dashed lines indicate the median noise level at corresponding to each I/O function.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Example of an I/O function better fitted by the two-slope model. The linear-pressure (thin line) and two-slope (thick line) fits are both superimposed on the DPOAE measurements at in an ear with 0 dB HL threshold. The circles in the upper panel represent the measured DPOAE levels and the circles in the lower panel represent the corresponding pressure amplitudes in . In this case, the standard error for the two-slope fit was 76% smaller than the linear-pressure fit. The squares represent the noise levels corresponding to each DPOAE measurement. The filled and open triangles indicate the DPOAE thresholds associated with the two-slope fit and linear-pressure fits, respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Example of an I/O function better fitted by the linear-pressure model. The linear-pressure (thin line) and two-slope (thick line) fits are compared for a DPOAE I/O function at in an ear with 5-dB HL threshold. The circles in the upper panel represent the measured DPOAE levels and the circles in the lower panel represent the corresponding pressure amplitudes in . In this case, the standard error for the two-slope fit was 28% larger than the linear-pressure fit. The squares represent the noise levels corresponding to each DPOAE measurement. The filled and open triangles indicate the DPOAE thresholds associated with the two-slope fit and linear-pressure fits, respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Level parameters. The input-level parameter (upper panel) represents the position of the two-slope breakpoint along the axis, while the output-level parameter (lower panel) represents the position of the two-slope breakpoint along the axis.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Distribution of level parameters for 0 dB HL. Each box-and-whisker symbol indicates the median, inter-quartile range, and furthest non-outliers for selected distributions of either (upper panel) or (lower panel).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Slope parameters. The first slope parameter (upper panel) represents the low-level slope, while the second parameter represents the additional compression that is applied to reduce the slope at high levels.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Distribution of slope parameters for 0 dB HL. Each box-and-whisker symbol indicates the median, inter-quartile range, and furthest non-outliers for selected distributions of either (upper panel) or (lower panel).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

DPOAE thresholds for both the linear-pressure (upper panel) and two-slope (lower panel) methods. For the linear-pressure method, threshold was defined as the intercept of the fitted line with the axis at zero pressure. For the two-slope method, threshold was defined as the value on the fitted function corresponding to SPL. Examples of the relation of the DPOAE threshold to the fitted I/O function are illustrated by the triangles in Figs. 2 and 3 .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Standard error of BT prediction based on DPOAE threshold for both the linear-pressure (upper panel) and two-slope (lower panel) methods. For both methods, the predicted BT was based on a linear regression of median DPOAE thresholds onto BT.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Frequency dependence of two-slope level parameters for representative HL categories (0, 20, 40, and 60 dB HLs). The input-level parameter (upper panel) includes the influence of forward middle-ear transmission, while the output-level parameter (lower panel) includes the influence of reverse middle-ear transmission.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Two-slope model I/O functions at 4 kHz for representative HL categories (0, 20, 40, and 60 dB HLs). DPOAE levels (dB SPL) are shown in the upper panel and the corresponding pressure in the lower panel. These I/O functions were calculated using the regression coefficients listed in Table II .

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

The number of I/O functions in each HL category at each frequency that were included in the analysis.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Linear-regression coefficients describing median I/O-function parameters as functions of BT at each frequency. As an example, the I/O functions based on these parameters at 4 kHz are shown in Fig. 11 .

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/2/10.1121/1.3158859
2009-08-01
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Distortion-product otoacoustic emission input/output characteristics in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired human ears
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/2/10.1121/1.3158859
10.1121/1.3158859
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