Proportion of respondents in each sound immission interval who noticed sound from wind turbines outside their dwelling (left column) or were annoyed by it (right column); [(A) and (B)] comparison between respondents who benefited economically and those who did not; [(C) and (D)] comparison between respondents who could see at least one wind turbine from their dwelling and those who could not; [(E)–(F)] comparison between respondents living in built-up areas, rural areas with a main road, and rural areas without a main road. , , (Mann–Whitney U-test), vs rural with main road, with main road vs rural without main road, and vs rural without main road.
Proportions of respondents annoyed (a) and very annoyed (b) by wind turbine noise outside their dwellings in four sound level intervals in the Dutch study (only respondents who did not benefit economically, ) and the Swedish studies , with 95% confidence intervals.
Proportion of respondents annoyed (a) and very annoyed (b) by wind turbine noise outside their dwellings (only respondents who did not benefit economically, ) compared to the modeled response [(A) percentage annoyed and (B) percentage highly annoyed] to noise from road traffic, aircraft, and railways (Miedema and Oudshoorn, 2001) and from industry and shunting yards (Miedema and Vos, 2004). For wind turbine noise the median of sound immission levels in each 5-dB interval is at the abscissa.
Study sample, number of respondents, and response rate according to 5-dB(A) sound level interval.
Response to wind turbine noise outdoors or indoors, proportion of respondents according to 5-dB(A) sound level intervals, and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).
Description of possible moderating variables in relation to 5-dB(A) sound level intervals: proportion of respondents per sound level interval and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for subjective variables.
Results of two logistic regression models using the response variables do not notice/notice and not annoyed/annoyed, respectively; the exposure variable sound pressure level (continuous scale) and situational factors were used as moderating variables .
Correlations between sound pressure levels, response (five-point scale from “do not notice” to “very annoyed”), and subjective variables; Spearman’s rank correlation test.
Results of a logistic regression model with the response variables not annoyed/annoyed, the exposure variable sound pressure level (continuous scale), and individual factors as moderating variables .
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