Volume 126, Issue 2, August 2009
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3158926View Description Hide Description
Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea. Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources at each of the two walls perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Simulation results in a two-dimensional room of irregular shape and in a rectangular room with sources randomly distributed on two opposite walls demonstrate that the proposed technique leads to smaller global reproduction errors and better equalization performance at listening positions outside of the control region compared to effort regularization and compared to a simple technique that involves driving groups of sources identically.
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3158918View Description Hide Description
Energy considerations are of enormous practical importance in acoustics. In “energy acoustics,” sources of noise are described in terms of the sound power they emit, the underlying assumption being that this property is independent of the particular environment where the sources are placed. However, it is well known that the sound power output of a source emitting a pure tone or a narrow band of noise actually varies significantly with its position in a reverberation room at low frequencies, and even larger variations occur between different rooms. The resulting substantial uncertainty in measurements of sound power as well as in predictions based on knowledge of sound power is one of the fundamental limitations of energy acoustics. The existing theory for this phenomenon is fairly complicated and has only been validated rather indirectly. This paper describes a far simpler theory and demonstrates that it gives predictions in excellent agreement with the established theory. The results are confirmed by experimental results as well as finite element calculations.
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3158936View Description Hide Description
The acoustic response of a rigid-frame porous plate with a periodic set of inclusions is investigated by a multipole method. The acoustic properties, in particular, the absorption, of such a structure are then derived and studied. Numerical results together with a modal analysis show that the addition of a periodic set of high-contrast inclusions leads to the excitation of the modes of the plate and to a large increase in the acoustic absorption.
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3158820View Description Hide Description
The radiation efficiency of an infinite flat panel that radiates a plane wave into a half space is equal to the inverse of the cosine of the angle between the direction of propagation of the plane wave and the normal to the panel. The fact that this radiation efficiency tends to infinity as the angle tends to 90° causes problems with simple theories of sound insulation. Sato calculated numerical values of radiation efficiency for a finite size rectangular panel in an infinite baffle whose motion is forced by sound incident at an angle to the normal from the other side. This paper presents a simple two dimensional analytic strip theory, which agrees reasonably well with Sato’s numerical calculations for a rectangular panel. This leads to the conclusion that it is mainly the length of the panel in the direction of radiation, rather than its width that is important in determining its radiation efficiency. A low frequency correction is added to the analytic strip theory. The theory is analytically integrated over all angles of incidence, with the appropriate weighting function, to obtain the diffuse sound field forced radiation efficiency of a panel.