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Volume 126, Issue 3, September 2009
- ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION 
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3158857View Description Hide Description
A previously described two-dimensional -space method for large-scale calculation of acoustic wave propagation in tissues is extended to three dimensions. The three-dimensional method contains all of the two-dimensional method features that allow accurate and stable calculation of propagation. These features are spectral calculation of spatial derivatives, temporal correction that produces exact propagation in a homogeneous medium, staggered spatial and temporal grids, and a perfectly matched boundary layer. Spectral evaluation of spatial derivatives is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform in three dimensions. This computational bottleneck requires all-to-all communication; execution time in a parallel implementation is therefore sensitive to node interconnect latency and bandwidth. Accuracy of the three-dimensional method is evaluated through comparisons with exact solutions for media having spherical inhomogeneities. Large-scale calculations in three dimensions were performed by distributing the nearly 50 variables per voxel that are used to implement the method over a cluster of computers. Two computer clusters used to evaluate method accuracy are compared. Comparisons of -space calculations with exact methods including absorption highlight the need to model accurately the medium dispersion relationships, especially in large-scale media. Accurately modeled media allow the -space method to calculate acoustic propagation in tissues over hundreds of wavelengths.