Index of content:
Volume 126, Issue 3, September 2009
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
Quantification of material nonlinearity in relation to microdamage density using nonlinear reverberation spectroscopy: Experimental and theoretical study126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3184583View Description Hide Description
High amplitude vibrations induce amplitude dependence of the characteristicresonance parameters (i.e., resonance frequency and damping factor) in materials with microscopic damage features as a result of the nonlinear constitutive relation at the damage location. This paper displays and quantifies results of the nonlinear resonance technique, both in time (signal reverberation) and in frequency (sweep) domains, as a function of sample crack density. The reverberation spectroscopy technique is applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites exposed to increasing thermal loading. Considerable gain in sensitivity and consistent interpretation of the results for nonlinear signatures in comparison with the linear characteristics are obtained. The amount of induced damage is quantified by analyzing light optical microscopy images of several cross-sections of the CFRP samples using histogram equalization and grayscale thresholding. The obtained measure of crack density is compared to the global macroscopic nonlinearity of the sample and explicitly confirms that the increase in nonlinearity is linked to an increased network of cracks. A change from 1% to 3% in crack density corresponds to a tenfold increase in the signature of nonlinearity. Numerical simulations based on a uniform distribution of a hysteretic nonlinear constitutive relation within the sample support the results.
Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on destruction of encapsulated microbubbles under ultrasound126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3179677View Description Hide Description
Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on the pulsation of encapsulated microbubbles has been studied by numerical simulations under the condition of the experiment reported by Chang et al. [IEEE Trans. Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control48, 161 (2001)]. It has been shown that the natural (resonance) frequency of a microbubble decreases considerably as the microbubble concentration increases to relatively high concentrations. At some concentration, the natural frequency may coincide with the driving frequency. Microbubble pulsation becomes milder as the microbubble concentration increases except at around the resonance condition due to the stronger bubble-bubble interaction. This may be one of the reasons why the threshold of acoustic pressure for destruction of an encapsulated microbubble increases as the microbubble concentration increases. A theoretical model for destruction has been proposed.
A generalized statistical Burgers equation to predict the evolution of the power spectral density of high-intensity noise in atmosphere126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3167393View Description Hide Description
The present work is a theoretical/numerical investigation of the combined effect of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, and atmospheric absorption on the evolution of the power spectral density of a noise field, when only the power spectral density is known at source, not the signal itself. This is often the case in aircraft noise measurements. The method presented here is based on and extends previous work [P. Menounou and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.115, 567–580 (2004)], where a recursion equation [statistical Burgers equation (SBE)] describing the evolution of the joint moments of the noise source was derived. The SBE is restricted to plane waves, thermoviscous fluids, and short propagation distances (preshock region). In the present work, the SBE is extended to include the effects of geometrical spreading and arbitrary absorption, in order to be applicable to propagation of high-intensity noise through atmosphere. A new equation is derived and termed generalized SBE, and a method for its numerical implementation is presented. Results are in good agreement with time domain calculations for propagation in atmosphere of (i) sinusoidal signals (benchmark case) and (ii) Gaussian processes with known power spectral densities at source.