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Informational masking in young and elderly listeners for speech masked by simultaneous speech and noise
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10.1121/1.3205403
/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/4/10.1121/1.3205403
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/4/10.1121/1.3205403

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A schematic illustration of the three stimulus conditions of experiment 1. The open black box represents the steady noise present in each condition. The text Christmas is coming soon represents the target speech, which starts after the steady noise in each condition. In the SN condition (middle panel) the gray text represents the competing speech (“The dirty boy was washing the puppy licked his master”). In the MN condition (bottom panel) the gray waveform represents the modulated noise.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The pure-tone audiograms of the 20 elderly listeners’ better ears in experiment 1 (gray lines) and the corresponding mean audiogram (thick black line).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The psychometric functions measured in experiment 1 for all young listeners (top panels) and elderly listeners (bottom panels). In each panel the symbols show the measured data and the lines show the best-fitting cumulative-normal functions [Eq. (6)]. The parameter is condition: N: open circles and solid lines; MN: asterisks and dashed lines; SN: filled squares and dashed lines. The elderly listeners are ordered by their BEAs, which are shown in the bottom-right corner of each panel.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The derived SRTs and differences in SRTs measured in experiment 1. The top panel shows the speech-in-noise thresholds for each listener; the middle panel, the effect on SRT of adding modulated noise , and the bottom panel, the amount of informational masking . The regression lines are fitted through the elderly listeners’ data only (filled circles).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The across-age-group averages of and measured in experiment 1. The error bars are 95%-confidence intervals.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

As Fig. 4, but with the data plotted against age instead of BEA hearing loss.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The SRTs measured in the SN conditions of experiment 2. In each panel the symbols show the measured data and the lines show the predictions given by energetic masking alone, based on the long-term average power of the total masker. The four panels are for the four listeners. The error bars are 95%-confidence intervals.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

As Fig. 7, but for the MN conditions of experiment 2. The data are averaged across the listeners. The error bars are 95%-confidence intervals.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Illustrative spectra of the stimuli used in experiment 3. A target sentence was filtered into seven frequency bands, of which the first, third, fifth, and seventh were kept and the rest removed (top panel). A competing sentence was similarly filtered but the opposing bands kept (second panel). Two speech-shaped noises were also filtered to form a noise masking the target speech (third panel) and a noise masking the competing speech (fourth panel). All four were then combined into one stimulus for presentation. Not illustrated is a complementary set of stimuli, in which the frequency bands used for the target and competitor were swapped.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The pure-tone audiograms of the 20 elderly listeners’ better ears in experiment 1 (gray lines) and the corresponding mean audiogram (thick black line).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The psychometric functions from experiment 3 for an illustrative selection of listeners (see text for choices). The conditions are ordered by column. In each panel one psychometric function is for when the target speech used the first, third, fifth, and seventh frequency bands, the other for when it used the second, fourth, and sixth bands.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

The SRTs measured in experiment 3. The conditions are ordered by row. The data are plotted as a function of hearing level (left panels) or age (right panels; any SRT larger than was capped at that value (see text). The data from the young listeners are shown as open triangles; the data from the elderly listeners as filled circles. The regression line was fitted to elderly listeners’ data only (solid line). The error bars show 95%-confidence intervals; a dashed line indicates an error bar that was too large to show on the graph. Note that the range of BEAs is considerably smaller than that shown in Fig. 4.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

The levels of the stimuli used in experiment 3. The levels of the target noise were varied to form the psychometric function. For the young listeners, the levels ranged between 50 and SPL, at intervals; for the elderly listeners, the levels were chosen individually on the basis of training data, but again always covered a range of at intervals.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/4/10.1121/1.3205403
2009-10-01
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Informational masking in young and elderly listeners for speech masked by simultaneous speech and noise
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/126/4/10.1121/1.3205403
10.1121/1.3205403
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