Volume 126, Issue 4, October 2009
Index of content:
- BIOACOUSTICS 
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3204304View Description Hide Description
The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than . To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strainconstitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers–Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters.
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3203667View Description Hide Description
Crocodilians are quite vocal relative to other reptile groups, and the alligators are among the most vocal of the crocodilians. The Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is usually solitary but engages in bellowing choruses in certain waters during the mating season. This paper reports the organization of Chinese alligator’s bellowing choruses based upon field observations and playback experiments. Alligators of both genders engaged in the choruses, remaining immobile throughout and inclining toward bellowing synchronously (i.e., starting and finishing at about the same time). The choruses lasted about 10 min with abrupt onset and offset. Moreover, playback experiments revealed that both male and female alligators responded equally to bellowing stimuli from the same and opposite sexes and that none of the tested alligators approached the loudspeaker in spite of playback of male or female stimuli. These suggest that Chinese alligators may not bellow to compete for or attract mates during the choruses. Instead, when their ecological behaviors, namely, dispersed inhabitation, multi-copulation, restricted mating season, etc., are considered, we hypothesize that they may synchronize bellows to enhance group detectability for assembling individuals into certain waters for subsequent copulations.
Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: The chick-a-dee call of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufuscens)126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3203736View Description Hide Description
A first step to understanding how a species communicates acoustically is to identify, categorize, and quantify the acoustic parameters of the elements that make up their vocalizations. The “chick-a-dee” call notes of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens) were sorted into four call note categories, A, C, D, and notes, based on their acoustic structure as observed in sound spectrograms, and evaluated based on the syntactical ordering of the note types within calls. The notes were then analyzed using quantitative measures and it was determined which features have the potential to convey information to discriminate note type, individual, and the geographic origin of the producer. The findings were comparable to previous research of congeners in that chestnut-backed chickadee calls were produced with a relatively fixed syntax and contained similarly structured note types across all geographic regions. Overall this information will form a base for future research on chestnut-backed chickadee vocalizations and will strengthen the foundation for future comparative evolutionary studies.
Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3203562View Description Hide Description
Fishes show great variability in hearing sensitivity, bandwidth, and the appropriate stimulus component for the inner ear (particle motion or pressure). Here, hearing sensitivities in three vocal marine species belonging to different families were described in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. In particular, hearing sensitivity to tone bursts of varying frequencies were measured in the red-mouthed goby Gobius cruentatus, the Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis, and the brown meagre Sciaena umbra using the non-invasive auditory evoked potential-recording technique. Hearing thresholds were measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions using a newly developed miniature pressure-acceleration sensor. The brown meagre showed the broadest hearing range (up to ) and the best hearing sensitivity, both in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. The red-mouthed goby and the damselfish were less sensitive, with upper frequency limits of 700 and , respectively. The low auditory thresholds and the large hearing bandwidth of S. umbra indicate that sound pressure may play a role in S. umbra’shearing, even though pronounced connections between the swim bladder and the inner ears are lacking.
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3206585View Description Hide Description
Elastography applications require the use of efficient models to simulate the propagation of shear waves in soft media such as human tissues. These models are needed to improve understanding of the measured displacement field, to reconstruct the viscoelasticity of heterogeneous tissues, and to test inversion algorithms. This paper reports a numerical model based on a pseudospectral time domain method developed to simulate shear and compression wave propagation in an axisymmetric heterogeneous viscoelastic medium. This model was adapted to the study of soft tissues where the ratio between the compression and the shear wave velocity was about a thousand and validated in the homogeneous situation by comparison with an analytical model based on elastodynamic Green’s functions. Displacements obtained experimentally using transient elastography are presented, compared with simulation results, and discussed.