Volume 126, Issue 5, November 2009
Index of content:
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3227640View Description Hide Description
A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bowvelocity,bowacceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.
126(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3203209View Description Hide Description
An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing performance using an optical motion capture system and sensors on the bow. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the use and coordination of the main bowing parameters bowvelocity,bow force, and bow-bridge distance. An analysis of bowing strategies in détaché playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, and 4 s) at three dynamic levels (, , and ) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the “steady” part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending on the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space.