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Exploiting forward scattering for detecting submerged proud/half-buried unexploded ordnance
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1.H. J. Simpson, B. H. Houston, and R. Lim, “Laboratory measurements of sound scattering from a buried sphere above and below the critical angle,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 3942 (2003).
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

Bistatic TS displayed in dB as a color map measured for the 5 in. rocket versus frequency (2–25 kHz) and the source angle minus receiver angle. 0° and 90° source angles are on the left and right, respectively. Free-field (upper row), proud (middle row), and half-buried (lower row). Monostatic measurements (Ref. 2) for the proud target (middle right).

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

Measured free-field forward scattered TS versus frequency in black. (a) 90° source; blue/green soft/rigid boundary condition theory, respectively; (b) 0° source; blue theory.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

(a) Hypothetical long range forward scattering measurement range: , , and are the source-to-target distance, the distance from the source to a particular receiver, and the distance from the target to a particular receiver, respectively; (b) time-cross range plots in dB for the direct source 150 m from the center receiver (heavy line) and for the forward scattered signal ×30 with TS given by Eq. (4); (c) scattering TS in dB versus frequency and angle in the forward scattered sector for the scattering response given by Eq. (4); and (d) that extracted from the numerical results shown in (b).


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Laboratory underwater bistatic scattering measurements are reported for free, proud, and half-buried unexploded ordnances for 0° and 90° source angles. Forward echoes are larger than backscattered returns, and half burial significantly decreases the latter but not the former. Results agree with analytic predictions borrowed from radar. The forward echo and source signal are separated by measurements made with and without the target, a method not possible in a target search. For this, a method is described that uses knowledge of the source location and the hyperbolic character in time-cross range of the signals received at points along a line.


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Scitation: Exploiting forward scattering for detecting submerged proud/half-buried unexploded ordnance