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Localization of sperm whales in a group using clicks received at two separated short baseline arrays
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10.1121/1.3268593
/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/1/10.1121/1.3268593
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/1/10.1121/1.3268593

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Developed acoustic system: panel (a) shows the overview of the acoustic system; the middle panel (b) shows the principle of the direction calculation; and panel (c) shows the localization geometry using the designed acoustic system.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Estimation of localization error: panel (a) shows the sound velocity profile using data from XBT by the equation of Del Grosso (salinity is set to be constant at 35%); panel (b) shows the estimation results of localization error in horizontal plane, and in this panel, 50 m is set to the maximal distance error (the position of each array is indicated as a circle); panel (c) shows the estimation results of vertical error.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Proposed analysis flow to calculate the position of the whale: panel (a) shows the block diagram of the data flow of the proposed analysis; the middle panel (b) shows the analysis flow of the SBL with classification; panel (c) shows the analysis flow of the LBL with class matching.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Analysis flow of the click detection, direction calculation, and classification: panel (a) shows the analysis flow of the click detection; panel (b) shows the analysis flow of the direction calculation; panel (c) shows the analysis flow of the classification; panel (d) shows the analysis flow of the addition click data to the classification list.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

All class matching: panel (a) shows the example of class mismatching and mislocalization, and panel (b) shows the analysis flow of all-class matching.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Results of direction calculation: panel (a) shows the bearing angles of clicks at array A, and panel (b) shows the depression angles of clicks at array A. The lower left panel (c) shows the bearing angles of clicks at array B, and panel (d) shows the depression angles of clicks at array B.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Results of classification: panel (a) shows the bearing angles of the classes at array A, and panel (b) shows the depression angles of the classes at array A. The lower left panel (c) shows the bearing angles of the classes at array B and panel (d) shows the depression angles of the classes at array B.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Triaxial movements: panel (a) shows the -axis (east to west) motion; panel (b) shows the -axis (north to south) motion; panel (c) shows the -axis (depth) motion. The panel (d) shows the movements in the horizontal plane. In this panel, horizontal motions of six whales and two boats are described.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Smoothed triaxial motion: panel (a) shows the smoothed -axis (east to west) motion; panel (b) shows the smoothed -axis (north to south) motion; panel (c) shows the smoothed -axis (depth) motion.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Speed of the whales: panel (a) shows filtered speed of the six whales, and panel (b) shows the vertical component of (a).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Relationships between the depth and ICI in a group: in these figures, the lines indicate the smoothed depth, and the cross markers indicate the ICI. The top panel (a) shows the results of whale A, and panels (b)–(e) show the results of whale C, D, E, and F, respectively.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Misclassification: panel (a) shows the example of misclassification; panel (b) shows the example of mislocalization; panel (c) shows yet another example; panel (d) shows the example of a class constructed by the different whales.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Characteristics of the classes of A and B; click time shows clicking time of the class, and shape shows the characteristics of the depression angle, as seen in Fig. 7. The time event of the shape and the corresponding value of the depression angle are also shown.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Matching table.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Example of misclassification.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/1/10.1121/1.3268593
2010-01-05
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Localization of sperm whales in a group using clicks received at two separated short baseline arrays
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/1/10.1121/1.3268593
10.1121/1.3268593
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