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Volume 127, Issue 2, February 2010
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
127(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3278591View Description Hide Description
A technique is described to image the vector intensity in the near field of a spherical array of microphones flush mounted in a rigid sphere. The spatially measuredpressure is decomposed into Fourier harmonics in order to reconstruct the volumetric vector intensity outside the sphere. The theory for this reconstruction is developed in this paper. The resulting intensity images are very successful at locating and quantifying unknown exterior acoustic sources, ideal for application in noise control problems in interior spaces such as automobiles and airplanes. Arrays of varying numbers of microphones and radii are considered and compared and errors are computed for both theory and experiment. It is demonstrated that this is an ill-posed problem below a cutoff frequency depending on array design, requiring Tikhonov regularization below cutoff. There is no low frequency limit on operation, although the signal-to-noise ratio is the determining factor for high-spatial resolution at low frequencies. It is shown that the upper frequency limit is set by the number of microphones in the array and is independent of noise. The accuracy of the approach is assessed by considering the exact solution for the scattering of a point source by a rigid sphere. Several field experiments are presented to demonstrate the utility of the technique. In these experiments, the partial field decomposition technique is used and holograms of multiple exterior sources are separated and their individual volumetric intensity fields imaged. In this manner, the intensity fields of two uncorrelated tube sources in an anechoic chamber are isolated from one another and separated intensity maps are obtained from over a broad frequency range. In a practical application, the vector intensity field in the interior of an automobile cabin is mapped at the fundamental of the engine vibration using the rigid sphere positioned at the driver’s head. The source regions contributing to the interior cabin noise are identified.