1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Updating signal typing in voice: Addition of type 4 signals
Rent:
Rent this article for
USD
10.1121/1.3397477
/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/6/10.1121/1.3397477
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/6/10.1121/1.3397477

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Waveforms of four of the voice samples used in the analysis. Panels (A), (B), (C), and (D) are samples of type 1, 2, 3, and 4 voices, respectively. The waveforms in panels (A) and (D) are from female voices while those in panels (B) and (C) are from male voices.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Spectrograms generated from voice data. Panels (A), (B), (C), and (D) were classified as type 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The spectrograms in panels (A) and (D) are from female voices while those in panels (B) and (C) are from male voices.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Results of nonlinear and perturbation analysis. Error bars represent standard error. None of the type 4 voices converged using nonlinear analysis. Each group contains ten voice samples. A one-way ANOVA on ranks detected significance for (, 2 d.f., ).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Mean and standard error for the unreliability measures. Each group contained ten samples. A one-way ANOVA on ranks detected significance for both trk (, 3 d.f., ) and err (, 3 d.f., ).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Mean perceptual ratings for each voice type. Mean overall score and mean breathiness score are given for each type with error bars representing standard error . An ANOVA on ranks detected significance for both scores (, 3 d.f., for overall grade and , 3 d.f., for breathiness). Pairwise comparisons found significance for type 1 and type 4, type 2 and type 4, and type 1 and type 3.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Mean perturbation measures for groups as classified by spectrogram typing and by cluster analysis. Each spectrogram group contained 10 samples, while cluster groups contained 9, 10, 13, and 8 samples for type 1–4 groups, respectively. Error bars represent standard error.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Mean unreliability measures as classified by spectrogram typing and by cluster analysis. Each spectrogram group contained 10 samples, while cluster groups contained 9, 10, 13, and 8 samples for type 1–4 groups, respectively. Error bars represent standard error.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Mean perceptual measures as classified by spectrogram typing and by cluster analysis. Each spectrogram group contained 10 samples, while cluster groups contained 9, 10, 13, and 8 samples for type 1–4 groups, respectively. Error bars represent standard error.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Subject Characteristics for each signal type group. Displayed are the mean age, age range, and gender ratio.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/6/10.1121/1.3397477
2010-06-09
2014-04-24
Loading

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Updating signal typing in voice: Addition of type 4 signals
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/127/6/10.1121/1.3397477
10.1121/1.3397477
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM