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Design and analysis of a recoil-type vibrotactile transducer
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Vibration Motors and their typical response. (a) Various models from Precision Microdrives Ltd. (b) Chirp-like response of a vibration motor to a step input. (c) Reducing the input amplitude by a factor five renders the motor essentially useless.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Voice Coil Actuators. Sources: (a) Moving Coil (USA Motion), (b) Moving Magnet (H2W Technologies).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Actuator arrangement. (a) Shaded parts are made of non-ferromagnetic material. A magnet is suspended by two rubber membranes in gray. The field lines intersect each half of the coil to create an axial force. The coil is arranged such that the current flows in opposite directions in each half. (b) External aspect of a ‘haptuator’. (c) Measurement setup with purely inertial load. (d) The magnetic field lines emanating from the magnet. The arrows show the forces acting on the coil.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Actuator physics. (a) Free-body diagram of the actuator. The two masses are free-floating. The ‘’ parameters can be set by design. The ‘’ parameters represent the load which must be driven. (b) Electrical circuit.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Equivalent circuit. (a) Using the impedance analogy. (b) Using the mobility analogy.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Block representation of the mechanical components, (a) impedance, (b) mobility.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Circuit representation of the electrical circuit combined with the equivalent circuit of the mechanical system.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

System Response. (a) Frequency response of the actuator acceleration to input voltage ratio for three different levels (rms). (b) The magnitude and phase plot of a fitted order model. (c) Plot of the impedance of the suspension, .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Actuator scaling properties.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The magnitude of when the real (top) and the imaginary part (bottom) of vary by 20% around the nominal value.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) Acceleration output when the load varies from 15 g to 100 g (lowest) with 5 g increments. The thick line in the magnitude plot with the nominal value of 15 g. (b) Acceleration output for values of 30% higher to 30% lower. Each line represents a 10% increment. The thick line in the magnitude plot with the original value, .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Coil optimization. (a) Values of for different coil positions away from the center position. (b) Actuator drive factor given by different coil configuration.


Generic image for table

Electrical equivalents to mechanical elements using the impedance or the mobility analogy.

Generic image for table

Summary of the main characteristic figures.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Design and analysis of a recoil-type vibrotactile transducer