Volume 128, Issue 3, September 2010
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
Ototoxicity risk assessment combining distortion product otoacoustic emissions with a cisplatin dose modela)128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3473693View Description Hide Description
An objective method for identifying ototoxic hearing loss among patients receiving cisplatin is necessary since the ability of patients to take a behavioral test may change over the course of treatment. Data from 56 monitoring visits by 19 Veterans taking cisplatin were used to identify combinations of distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) metrics and ototoxicity risk factors that best identified ototoxic hearing loss.Models were tested that incorporated DPOAE metrics generated statistically using partial least-squares analysis. Models were also tested that incorporated a priori DPOAE change criteria, such as a minimum DPOAE level shift of 6 dB. Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was used to compare the accuracy of these models. The best performing model incorporated weighted combinations of pre-treatment hearing, cumulative cisplatin dose and DPOAE metrics that were determined using partial least-squares and evaluated over a quarter octave range near each subjects’ high frequency DPOAE limit. Using this model and the DPOAE recording methods described herein, the chance of ototoxic hearing change can be determined at any given observed change in DPOAE level. This approach appears to provide an accurate and rapid ototoxicity risk assessment (ORA) that once validated can be used clinically.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3463804View Description Hide Description
The cochlear amplifier is a nonlinear active process providing the mammalian ear with its extraordinary sensitivity, large dynamic range and sharp frequency tuning. While there is much evidence that amplification results from active force generation by mechanosensory hair cells, there is debate about the cellular processes behind nonlinear amplification. Outer hair cell electromotility has been suggested to underlie the cochlear amplifier. However, it has been shown in frog and turtle that spontaneous movements of hair bundles endow them with a nonlinear response with increased sensitivity that could be the basis of amplification. The present work shows that the properties of the cochlear amplifier could be understood as resulting from the combination of both hair bundle motility and electromotility in an integrated system that couples these processes through the geometric arrangement of hair cells embedded in the cochlear partition. In this scenario, the cochlear partition can become a dynamic oscillator which in the vicinity of a Hopf bifurcation exhibits all the key properties of the cochlear amplifier. The oscillatory behavior and the nonlinearity are provided by active hair bundles. Electromotility is largely linear but produces an additional feedback that allows hair bundle movements to couple to basilar membrane vibrations.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3466846View Description Hide Description
The state-space formalism [Elliott S. J., et al. (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am.122, 2759–2771] allows one to discretize cochlear models in a straightforward matrix form and to modify the main physical properties of the cochlear model by changing the position and functional form of a few matrix elements. Feed-forward and feed-backward properties can be obtained by simply introducing off-diagonal terms in the matrixes expressing the coupling between the dynamical variables and the additional active pressure on the basilar membrane. Some theoretical issues related to different cochlear modeling choices, their implementation in a state-space scheme, and their physical consequences on the cochlear phenomenology, as predicted by numerical simulations, are discussed. Different schematizations of the active term describing the behavior of the outer hair cell’s feedback mechanism, including nonlinear and nonlocal dependences on either pressure or basilar membrane displacement, are also discussed, showing their effect on some measurable cochlear properties.