Study area showing sampling localities of Rhinolophus pusillus analyzed in this study.
Sonogram (a) and power spectrum (b) of a typical echolocation call of Rhinolophus pusillus. Maximum energy is in the second harmonic around 105 kHz, which is used as the information carrier.
Variation in resting frequency (RF) of echolocation calls among individuals of Rhinolophus pusillus between locations. Each triangle indicates the mean call frequency of an individual, and bars represent . The sample sizes were showed in Table II. Abbreviation: TH, Tongbai, Henan; YJ, Yixing, Jiangsu; JA, Jingxian, Anhui; HZ, Hangzhou, Zhejiang; WC, Wulong, Chongqin; AG, Anshun, Guizhou; PF, Pingtan, Fujian; XG, Xingan, Guangxi; SG, Shaoguan, Guangdong; HY, Hekou, Yunnan; NG, Nanning, Guangxi. The arrangement of these locations from left to right is according to latitude from North to South.
Relationship of RF difference with (a) geographical distance and (b) climate Euclidean distance. Points represent all possible pairwise comparisons of the 11 collection sites.
Relationships between mean annual rainfall (MAR) and resting frequency (RF).
Latitude, longitude, and elevation of collection sites (listed from North to South) and corresponding climate data. MAT: mean annual temperature, MAR: mean annual rainfall, MAAP: mean annual atmospheric pressure, MAWV: mean annual wind velocity.
Resting frequency (RF) in echolocation calls and forearm length (FAL) of adult female (F) and male (M) Rhinolophus pusillus from 11 locations in China. Values are given as . The results of the —test for sexual difference are shown as DIF. Significant levels are ***, ; **, ; *, ; and –, . In addition, the results of one-way ANOVA for difference between locations.
Effect of SEX and LOCATION on the resting frequency (RF) and forearm length (FAL) of Rhinolophus pusillus in China, respectively. Tests were built with type III sum of squares. SEX and LOCATION were considered as fixed effect. The two models are significant and explain a large proportion of data variance (, , , in RF; and , , , in FAL).
Effect of SEX, LOCATION and FAL on the resting frequency (RF) of Rhinolophus pusillus in China. Tests were built with type III sum of squares. SEX and LOCATION were considered as fixed effect, and FAL was covariate. The model is significant and explains a large proportion of data variance (, , ).
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