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Discriminating features of echolocation clicks of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and Gray’s spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris)
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10.1121/1.3479549
/content/asa/journal/jasa/128/4/10.1121/1.3479549
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/128/4/10.1121/1.3479549

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Bathymetric map of Palmyra Atoll and position of HARP indicated with a star. Top right insert shows approximate location of Palmyra Atoll. Bathymetry data courtesy of NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center and the Pacific Islands Benthic Habitat Mapping Center, SOEST, University of Hawaii. Coastline data courtesy of National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA Satellite and Information Service, WVS Coastline Database. Plotted with GMT by Paul Wessel and Walter H. F. Smith.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Spectral patterns of echolocation clicks of melon-headed whales (pe—Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (tt—Tursiops truncatus) and Gray’s spinner dolphins (sl—Stenella longirostris longirostris). Top plot of A, B and C) Mean click spectra (black lines) and mean noise spectra (gray lines) of melon-headed whales (solid line), bottlenose dolphins (dotted line) and spinner dolphins (dashed line). Vertical lines indicate median peak frequency. Center and bottom graphs show box plot distributions of peak and center frequency, respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Median peak and center frequencies of grouped echolocation clicks in array data of 2006 which had the lowest overlap in quartiles (Table IV). (A) Center frequency (light gray) and peak frequency (dark gray) versus number of averaged clicks for melon-headed whale clicks (pe—Peponocephala electra); median frequency as solid gray lines, quartiles as dashed gray lines; black crossed lines indicate 50 averaged clicks where quartiles started to vary minimally. (B) Box plot distributions of peak and center frequency of all species with 50 averaged clicks (melon-headed whales, Peponocephala electra—pe; bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncates—tt; Gray’s spinner dolphins, Stenella longirostris longirostris—sl).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Skull comparisons. Underwater image at Palmyra Atoll (left) and example skull dorsal view (right) of melon-headed whale (top), bottlenose dolphin (middle) and spinner dolphin (bottom). All three species have asymmetric skulls with left side larger than the right.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Overview of data used in the spectral and temporal click analysis for melon-headed whales (pe), bottlenose dolphins (tt) and Gray’s spinner dolphins (sl) with three different recording systems;1 single-species, separate encounters,2 used to calculate averaged clicks,3 used for statistical analysis.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Spectral and temporal click parameters of melon-headed whale, bottlenose dolphin and Gray’s spinner dolphin clicks, calculated for each recording situation. Values are given as medians with first and third quartiles in squared brackets. n: number of clicks in analysis.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Discrimination of spectral click parameters of melon-headed whale, bottlenose dolphin and Gray’s spinner dolphin single clicks by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance calculated for each recording situation. Values are given as test results and their p values.*: , n.s.: not significant.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Examination of the effect of instrumentation on the significant separation of clicks of melon-headed whales, bottlenose and Gray’s spinner dolphins. Results of nested ANOVAs with species nested in instrumentation, unless otherwise reported. of freedom. of squares.

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Spectral and temporal click parameters of melon-headed whale, bottlenose dolphin and Gray’s spinner dolphin averaged clicks (group size 50), calculated for each recording situation. Values are given as medians with first and third quartiles in squared brackets. n: number of clicks in analysis.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Discrimination of spectral click parameters of melon-headed whale, bottlenose dolphin and Gray’s spinner dolphin averaged clicks (group size 50) by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance calculated for each recording situation. Values are given as test results and their p values.*: , n.s.: not significant.

Generic image for table
TABLE VII.

Classification of single clicks and averaged clicks (group size 50) of melon-headed whales, bottlenose dolphins and Gray’s spinner dolphins by discriminant function analysis. PF: peak frequency, CF: center frequency, L-3dBF: lower −3 dB frequency.

Generic image for table
TABLE VIII.

Confusion matrix of discriminant function analysis. Results of classification of melon-headed whales (pe), bottlenose dolphins (tt) and Gray’s spinner dolphins (sl), all recording instrumentation, all classification parameters. Actual rows by predicted columns.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/128/4/10.1121/1.3479549
2010-10-18
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Discriminating features of echolocation clicks of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and Gray’s spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/128/4/10.1121/1.3479549
10.1121/1.3479549
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