Index of content:
Volume 128, Issue 4, October 2010
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3474234View Description Hide Description
An extended Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is presented to model atmospheric sound propagation by solving the linearized Euler equations. In this method, evaluation of spatial derivatives is based on an eigenfunction expansion. Evaluation on a spatial grid requires only two spatial points per wavelength. Time iteration is done using a low-storage optimized six-stage Runge-Kutta method. This method is applied to two-dimensional non-moving media models, one with screens and one for an urban canyon, with generally high accuracy in both amplitude and phase. For a moving atmosphere, accurate results have been obtained in models with both a uniform and a logarithmic wind velocity profile over a rigid ground surface and in the presence of a screen. The method has also been validated for three-dimensional sound propagation over a screen. For that application, the developed method is in the order of 100 times faster than the second-order-accurate FDTD solution to the linearized Euler equations. The method is found to be well suited for atmospheric sound propagation simulations where effects of complex meteorology and straight rigid boundary surfaces are to be investigated.
Measured wavenumber: Frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3478780View Description Hide Description
Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressurefluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressurefluctuations is 5% of the measuredaerodynamic surface pressurefluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressurefluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.
An iterative algorithm for computing aeroacoustic integrals with application to the analysis of free shear flow noise128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3466986View Description Hide Description
An iterative algorithm is developed for the computation of aeroacoustic integrals in the time domain. It is specially designed for the generation of acoustic images, thus giving access to the wavefront pattern radiated by an unsteady flow when large size source fields are considered. It is based on an iterative selection of source-observer pairs involved in the radiation process at a given time-step. It is written as an advanced-time approach, allowing easy connection with flow simulation tools. Its efficiency is related to the fraction of an observer grid step that a sound-wave covers during one time step. Test computations were performed, showing the CPU-time to be 30 to 50 times smaller than with a classical non-iterative procedure. The algorithm is applied to compute the sound radiated by a spatially evolving mixing-layer flow: it is used to compute and visualize contributions to the acoustic field from the different terms obtained by a decomposition of the Lighthill source term.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3473698View Description Hide Description
Cavity aeroacoustic noise is relevant for aerospace and automotive industries and widely investigated since the 1950s. Most investigations so far consider cavities where opening length and width are of similar scale. The present investigation focuses on a less investigated setup, namely cavities that resemble the door gaps of automobiles. These cavities are both slender (width much greater than length or depth) and partially covered. Furthermore they are under influence of a low Mach number flow with a relatively thick boundary layer. Under certain conditions, these gaps can produce tonal noise. The present investigation attempts to reveal the aeroacoustic mechanism of this tonal noise for higher resonance modes. Experiments have been conducted on a simplified geometry, where unsteady internal pressures have been measured at different spanwise locations. With increasing velocity, several resonance modes occur. In order to obtain higher mode shapes, the cavity acoustic response is simulated and compared with experiment. Using the frequency-filtered simulation pressure field, the higher modes shapes are retrieved. The mode shapes can be interpreted as the slender cavity self-organizing into separate Helmholtz resonators that interact with each other. Based on this, an analytical model is derived that shows good agreement with the simulations and experimental results.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3478852View Description Hide Description
The information content of a spinning sound field is analyzed using a combination of exact and asymptotic results, in order to set limits on how accurately source identification can be carried out. Using a transformation of the circular source to an exactly equivalent set of line source modes, given by Chebyshev polynomials, it is found that the line source modes of order greater than the source wavenumber generate exponentially small fields. Asymptotic analysis shows that the remaining, lower order, modes radiate efficiently only into a region around the source plane, with this region shrinking as the mode order is increased. The results explain the ill-conditioning of source identification methods; the successful use of low order models in active noise control; and the low radiation efficiency of subsonic jets.