Index of content:
Volume 128, Issue 4, October 2010
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3479541View Description Hide Description
A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3473692View Description Hide Description
Noise is a global problem. In 1972 the World Health Organization (WHO) classified noise as a pollutant. Since then, most industrialized countries have enacted laws and local regulations to prevent and reduce acoustic environmental pollution. A further aim is to alert people to the dangers of this type of pollution. In this context, urban planners need to have tools that allow them to evaluate the degree of acoustic pollution. Scientists in many countries have modeled urban noise, using a wide range of approaches, but their results have not been as good as expected. This paper describes a model developed for the prediction of environmental urban noise using Soft Computing techniques, namely Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The model is based on the analysis of variables regarded as influential by experts in the field and was applied to data collected on different types of streets. The results were compared to those obtained with other models. The study found that the ANN system was able to predict urban noise with greater accuracy, and thus, was an improvement over those models. The principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to try to simplify the model. Although there was a slight decline in the accuracy of the results, the values obtained were also quite acceptable.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3466870View Description Hide Description
Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.