Volume 128, Issue 4, October 2010
Index of content:
- TRANSDUCTION 
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3478777View Description Hide Description
A method is presented to determine power dissipation in one-dimensional piezoelectric slabs with internal losses and the resulting temperature distribution. The length of the slab is much greater than the lateral dimensions. Losses are represented using complex piezoelectric coefficients. It is shown that the spatially non-uniform power dissipation density in the slab can be determined by considering either hysteresis loops or the Poynting vector. The total power dissipated in the slab is obtained by integrating the power dissipation density over the slab and is shown to be equal to the power input to the slab for special cases of mechanically and electrically excited slabs. The one-dimensional heat equation that includes the effect of conduction and convection, and the boundary conditions, are then used to determine the temperature distribution. When the analytical expression for the power dissipation density is simple, direct integration is used. It is shown that a modified Fourier series approach yields the same results. For other cases, the temperature distribution is determined using only the latter approach. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the effects of internal losses, heat conduction and convection coefficients, and boundary conditions on the temperature distribution.
Receiving sensitivity and transmitting voltage response of a fluid loaded spherical piezoelectric transducer with an elastic coating128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3478776View Description Hide Description
A method is presented to determine the response of a spherical acoustic transducer that consists of a fluid-filled piezoelectric sphere with an elastic coating embedded in infinite fluid to electrical and plane-wave acoustic excitations. The exact spherically symmetric, linear, differential, governing equations are used for the interior and exterior fluids, and elastic and piezoelectric materials. Under acoustic excitation and open circuit boundary condition, the equation governing the piezoelectric sphere is homogeneous and the solution is expressed in terms of Bessel functions. Under electrical excitation, the equation governing the piezoelectric sphere is inhomogeneous and the complementary solution is expressed in terms of Bessel functions and the particular integral is expressed in terms of a power series. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the effect of dimensions of the piezoelectric sphere, fluid loading, elastic coating and internal material losses on the open-circuit Receiving Sensitivity and Transmitting Voltage Response of the transducer.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3479758View Description Hide Description
In order to reduce annoyance from the audio output of personal devices, it is necessary to maintain the sound level at the user position while minimizing the levels elsewhere. If the dark zone, within which the sound is to be minimized, extends over the whole far field of the source, the problem reduces to that of minimizing the radiated sound power while maintaining the pressure level at the user position. It is shown analytically that the optimum two-source array then has a hypercardioid directivity and gives about 7 dB reduction in radiated sound power, compared with a monopole producing the same on-axis pressure. The performance of other linear arrays is studied using monopole simulations for the motivating example of a mobile phone. The trade-off is investigated between the performance in reducing radiated noise, and the electrical power required to drive the array for different numbers of elements. It is shown for both simulations and experiments conducted on a small array of loudspeakers under anechoic conditions, that both two and three element arrays provide a reasonable compromise between these competing requirements. The implementation of the two-source array in a coupled enclosure is also shown to reduce the electrical power requirements.