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Ultrasonic differentiation of normal versus malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

Phase-contrast micrographs of (a) normal MCF-10A and (b) malignant MDA-MB-468 breast epithelial cells grown to confluence, showing the larger cell and nucleus sizes of the malignant versus normal cells.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

(a) Cell growth curves for normal and malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures grown in vitro. (b) Comparison of ultrasonic waveforms from Day 0 (dashed) and Day 9 (solid) of a monolayer culture of normal cells. Cell layer reflection occurs at approximately 7200 ns on Day 9 waveform (arrow). Waveforms are offset in time for clarity.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

(a) Amplitudes of the first wave reflections from the normal cell monolayers, showing the increase in amplitude of the waveform valley with time. (b) Amplitudes of the first wave reflections from the malignant cell monolayers, showing the increase in amplitude of the waveform peak with time.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

Wavelet analysis of (a) Day 9 of normal culture well, and (b) Day 9 of malignant culture well. The wavelet analysis highlights the differences in frequency content between the reflections of the normal cell monolayer and the malignant cell monolayer.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

(a) Computed ultrasonic backscatter spectra of normal and malignant cell monolayers in aqueous growth media. The peaks for malignant cells display a shift to lower frequencies due to their greater cell and nucleus size. (b) Computed ultrasonic backscatter spectra of normal and malignant cell monolayers in a polystyrene matrix to estimate the effects of the well surface on cell scattering.


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Normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells were studied using laboratory measurements, wavelet analysis, and numerical simulations of monolayercell cultures to determine whether microscopic breast cancer can be detected in vitro with high-frequency ultrasound. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired by immersing a broadband, unfocused 50-MHz transducer in the growth media of cell culture well plates and collecting the first reflection from the well bottoms. The simulations included a multilayer pulse-reflection model and a model of two-dimensional arrays of spherical cells and nuclei. The results show that normal and malignant cells produce time-domain signals and spectral features that are significantly different.


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Scitation: Ultrasonic differentiation of normal versus malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures