Volume 128, Issue 5, November 2010
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3493455View Description Hide Description
Most conventional diffusers take the form of a surface based treatment, and as a result can only operate in hemispherical space. Placing a diffuser in the volume of a room might provide greater efficiency by allowing scattering into the whole space. A periodic cylinder array (or sonic crystal) produces periodicity lobes and uneven scattering. Introducing defects into an array, by removing or varying the size of some of the cylinders, can enhance their diffusing abilities. This paper applies number theoretic concepts to create cylinder arrays that have more even scattering. Predictions using a boundary element method are compared to measurements to verify the model, and suitable metrics are adopted to evaluate performance. Arrangements with good aperiodic autocorrelation properties tend to produce the best results. At low frequency power is controlled by object size and at high frequency diffusion is dominated by lattice spacing and structural similarity. Consequently the operational bandwidth is rather small. By using sparse arrays and varying cylinder sizes, a wider bandwidth can be achieved.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3493429View Description Hide Description
A hybrid modal expansion that combines the free field Green’s function and a modal expansion will be presented in this paper based on a review and an extension of the existing modal analysis theories for the sound field in enclosures. The enclosed sound field will be separated into the direct field and reverberant field, which have been treated together in the traditional modal analysis. Studies on a point source in rectangular enclosures show that the hybrid modal expansion converges notably faster than the traditional modal expansions, especially in the region near the source, and introduces much smaller errors with a limited number of modes. The hybrid modal expansion can be easily applied to complex sound sources if the free field responses of the sources are known. Damped boundaries are also considered in this paper, and a set of modified modal functions is introduced, which is shown to be suitable for many damped boundary conditions.
Wideband characterization of the complex wave number and characteristic impedance of sound absorbers128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3488307View Description Hide Description
Several methods for measuring the complex wave number and the characteristic impedance of sound absorbers have been proposed in the literature. These methods can be classified into single frequency and wideband methods. In this paper, the main existing methods are revisited and discussed. An alternative method which is not well known or discussed in the literature while exhibiting great potential is also discussed. This method is essentially an improvement of the wideband method described by Iwase et al., rewritten so that the setup is more ISO 10534-2 standard-compliant. Glass wool, melamine foam and acoustical/thermal insulator wool are used to compare the main existing wideband non-iterative methods with this alternative method. It is found that, in the middle and high frequency ranges the alternative method yields results that are comparable in accuracy to the classical two-cavity method and the four-microphone transfer-matrix method. However, in the low frequency range, the alternative method appears to be more accurate than the other methods, especially when measuring the complex wave number.