Volume 128, Issue 5, November 2010
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
Influence of anabolic steroid treatment associated to physical exercise in the ultrasonic vocalization of rats128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3488350View Description Hide Description
Unlike humans, who communicate in frequency bands between 250 Hz and 6 kHz, rats can communicate in frequencies above 18 kHz. Their vocalization types depend on the context and are normally associated to subjective or emotional states. It was reported significant vocal changes due to administration of replacement testosterone in a trained tenorsinger with hypogonadism. Speech-Language Pathology clinical practices are being sought by singers who sporadically use anabolic steroids associated with physical exercise. They report difficulties in reaching and keeping high notes, “breakage” in the passage of musical notes and post singing vocal fatigue. Those abnormalities could be raised by the association of anabolic steroids and physical exercise. Thus, in order to verify if this association could promote vocal changes, maximum, minimum and fundamental frequencies and call duration in rats treated with anabolic steroids and physically trained (10 weeks duration) were evaluated. The vocalizations were obtained by handling the animals. At the end of that period, rats treated and trained showed significant decrease in call duration, but not in other parameters. The decrease in call duration could be associated to functional alterations in the vocal folds of treated and trained animals due to a synergism between anabolic steroids and physical training.
A direct approach for the design of chirp stimuli used for the recording of auditory brainstem responses128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3489111View Description Hide Description
A recent study evaluates auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by chirps of different durations (sweeping rates) [Elberling et al. (Year: 2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am.128, 215–223]. The study demonstrates that shorter chirps are most efficient at higher levels of stimulation whereas longer chirps are most efficient at lower levels. Mechanisms other than the traveling wave delay, in particular, upward spread of excitation and changes in cochlear-neural delay with level, are suggested to be responsible for these findings. As a consequence, delay models based on estimates of the traveling wave delay are insufficient for the design of chirp stimuli, and another delay model based on a direct approach is therefore proposed. The direct approach uses ABR-latencies from normal-hearing subjects in response to octave-band chirps over a wide range of levels. The octave-band chirps are constructed by decomposing a broad-band chirp, and constitute a subset of the chirp. The delay compensations of the proposed model are similar to those found in the previous experimental study, which thus verifies the results of the proposed model.