Index of content:
Volume 128, Issue 5, November 2010
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3493465View Description Hide Description
The acoustic response of a structure that contains a cavity filled with a loose granular material is analyzed. The inputs to the theory are the effective masses of each subsystem: that of the empty-cavity resonating structure and that of the granular medium within the cavity. This theory accurately predicts the frequencies, widths, and relative amplitudes of the various flexural mode resonances observed with rectangular bars, each having a cavity filled with loose tungsten granules. Inasmuch as the dominant mechanism for damping is due to adsorbed water at the grain-grain contacts, the significant effects of humidity on both the effective mass of the granular medium as well as on the response of the grain-loaded bars are monitored. Here, depending upon the humidity and the preparation protocol, it is possible to observe one, two, or three distinct resonances in a wide frequency range (1–5 kHz) over which the empty bar has but one resonance. These effects are understood in terms of the theoretical framework, which may simplify in terms of perturbation theories.
Simulative and experimental investigations on pressure-induced structural vibrations of a rear muffler128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3466874View Description Hide Description
The periodically blown out exhaust gas of a combustion engine may excite structural vibrations of the exhaust system. In addition to the noise of the orifice, these vibrations contribute to the overall noise radiation of the exhaust system. In this work, the excitation of structural vibrations of a rear muffler via the acoustic path is investigated both in experiments and simulations. In both cases transfer functions from the acoustic pressure at the inlet to the structural deflection on the surface of the rear muffler are determined and compared to each other. For the simulation an FE-FE (finite element) coupling is applied to account for the fluid-structure interaction. To efficiently predict the fluid-structure coupled behavior, a model reduction technique for the finite element method based on the Craig–Bampton method and the Rubin method is presented. In a last step, the sound radiation is evaluated by solving the exterior acoustic problem with the fast multipole boundary element method. For this purpose, the results of the FE computation are used as boundary datum.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3493432View Description Hide Description
Analytic and numerical models are used to study bone-conducted sound and how it relates to the vibrational modes of the human skull. The analytic model is based on the solution to the acoustic and elastic wave equations and the constraining boundary conditions for a fluid-filled elastic sphere. Both models predict that most of the acoustic energy of bone-conducted sound exists in the form of surface wave vibrations at the interface between two acoustic media rather than in the bone or cranial chamber. These surface waves have phase speeds much slower than the bulk sound speed for bone. The analytic model, based on spherical elastic shells, predicts a phase speed of 775 m/s and the first resonance frequency at 1500 Hz while the numerical solution yields approximate phase speeds of 450 m/s and provides a visual display of the surface waves and diffractioneffects.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3183369View Description Hide Description
Direct velocity feedback control of structures is well known to increase structural damping and thus reduce vibration. In multi-channel systems the way in which the velocity signals are used to inform the actuators ranges from decentralized control, through distributed or clustered control to fully centralized control. The objective of distributed controllers is to exploit the anticipated performance advantage of the centralized control while maintaining the scalability, ease of implementation, and robustness of decentralized control. However, and in seeming contradiction, some investigations have concluded that decentralized control performs as well as distributed and centralized control, while other results have indicated that distributed control has significant performance advantages over decentralized control. The purpose of this work is to explain this seeming contradiction in results, to explore the effectiveness of decentralized, distributed, and centralized vibro-acoustic control, and to expand the concept of distributed control to include the distribution of the optimization process and the cost function employed.
Active sound transmission control of a double-panel module using decoupled analog feedback control: Experimental results128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3488674View Description Hide Description
Low-frequency sound transmission through passive lightweight partitions often renders them ineffective as means of sound isolation. As a result, researchers have investigated actively controlled lightweight partitions in an effort to remedy this problem. One promising approach involves active segmented partitions (ASPs), in which partitions are segmented into several distinctly controlled modules. This paper provides an experimental analysis of a double-panel ASP module wherein the source- and transmitting-side panels are independently controlled by an analog feedback controller. Experimental results, including plant frequency response functions, acoustic coupling strengths, frequency response functions, and transmission losses (TLs) of single- and double-panel modules, are presented and compared to numerical predictions. Over the bandwidth of 20 Hz to 1 kHz, the average measured TL for an actively controlled single-panel module was 29 dB, compared to 14 dB for the passive case. The average measured TL over the same bandwidth for the actively controlled double-panel module was 57 dB, compared to 31 dB for the passive case.