Volume 128, Issue 5, November 2010
Index of content:
- TRANSDUCTION 
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3290979View Description Hide Description
In the first part of the paper, a single degree-of-freedom model of a vibrating membrane with piezoelectric inserts is introduced and is initially applied to the case when a plane wave is incident with frequency close to one of the resonance frequencies. The model is a prototype of a device which converts ambient acoustical energy to electrical energy with the use of piezoelectric devices. The paper then proposes an enhancement of the energy harvesting process using a nonlinear processing of the output voltage of piezoelectric actuators, and suggests that this improves the energy conversion and reduces the sensitivity to frequency drifts. A theoretical discussion is given for the electrical power that can be expected making use of various models. This and supporting experimental results suggest that a nonlinear optimization approach allows a gain of up to 10 in harvested energy and a doubling of the bandwidth. A model is introduced in the latter part of the paper for predicting the behavior of the energy-harvesting device with changes in acoustic frequency, this model taking into account the damping effect and the frequency changes introduced by the nonlinear processes in the device.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3493446View Description Hide Description
Analytical equations describing radiation characteristics of an oscillating ring in a circular finite baffle are derived, including the limiting case of a dipole point source at the center. An oscillating sphere would represent the ideal dipole source, having a constant directivity pattern at all frequencies, but would be inconvenient to realize especially in portable devices. It is found that a planar piston with uniform surface velocity but variable phase arranged to emulate the sphere does not have such a smooth on-axis response as the sphere. Instead a planar piston with the same phase distribution but uniform pressure represents an ideal planar source with a smooth on-axis response and near constant directivity. The surface velocity is plotted and it is then shown that a similar response can be achieved using a finite number of concentric rings based on this velocity distribution.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3480570View Description Hide Description
A method for generation of a wave-field that is a plane wave is described. This method uses an array of loudspeakers phased so that the field in the wave-number domain is nearly concentrated at a point, this point being at the wave-number vector of the desired plane wave. The method described here for such a wave-number concentration makes use of an expansion in spherical harmonics, and requires a relatively small number of measurement points for a good approximate achievement of a plane wave. The measurement points are on a spherical surface surrounding the array of loudspeakers. The input signals for the individual loudspeakers can be derived without a matrix inversion or without explicit assumptions about the loudspeakers. The mathematical development involves spherical harmonics and three-dimensional Fourier transforms. Some numerical examples are given, with various assumptions concerning the nature of the loudspeakers, that support the premise that the method described in the present paper may be useful in applications.