Volume 128, Issue 5, November 2010
Index of content:
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
Nonlinear propagation acoustics of dual-frequency wide-band excitation pulses in a focused ultrasound system128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3488308View Description Hide Description
In this article, acoustic propagation effects of dual-frequency wide-band excitation pulses in a focused ultrasound system are demonstrated in vitro. A designed and manufactured dual-frequency band annular array capable of transmitting 0.9/7.5 MHz center frequency wide-band pulses was used for this purpose. The dual-frequency band annular array, has been designed using a bi-layer piezo-electric stack. Water tank measurements demonstrate the function of the array by activating the low- and high-frequency layers individually and simultaneously. The results show that the array works as intended. Activating the low- and high-frequency layers individually, results in less than −50 dB signal level from the high- and low-frequency layers respectively. Activating both layers simultaneously, produce a well defined dual-frequency pulse. The presence of the low-frequency pulse leads to compression, expansion, and a time delay of the high-frequency pulse. There is a phase shift between the low- and high-frequency pulse as it propagates from the array to the focus. This makes the latter described effects also dependent on the array configuration. By varying the low-frequency pressure, a shift of up to 0.5 MHz in center frequency of a 8.0 MHz transmitted high-frequency pulse is observed at the array focus. The results demonstrate the high propagation complexity of dual-frequency pulses.
Properties of photocured epoxy resin materials for application in piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer matching layers128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3483734View Description Hide Description
This paper describes the acoustic properties of a range of epoxy resins prepared by photocuring that are suitable for application in piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer matching layers. Materials, based on blends of diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol diglycidyl ether, are described. Furthermore, in order to vary the elastic character of the base resin, samples containing polymer microspheres or barium sulfate particles are also described. The acoustic properties of the materials are determined by a liquid coupled through transmission methodology, capable of determining the velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves propagating in an isotropic layer. Measured acoustic properties are reported which demonstrate materials with specific acoustic impedance varying in the range 0.88–6.25 MRayls. In the samples comprising blends of resin types, a linear variation in the acoustic velocities and density was observed. In the barium sulfate filled samples, acoustic impedance showed an approximately linear variation with composition, reflecting the dominance of the density variation. While such variations can be predicted by simple mixing laws, relaxation and scattering effects influence the attenuation in both the blended and filled resins. These phenomena are discussed with reference to dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry of the samples.
Scattering of plane guided waves obliquely incident on a straight feature with uniform cross-section128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3488663View Description Hide Description
A frequency-domain finite element(FE) method is presented for modeling the scattering of plane guided waves incident on an infinitely-long, straight feature with uniform cross-section in a planar host waveguide. The method utilizes a mesh of 2-dimensional finite elements with harmonic shape functions in the perpendicular direction. The model domain comprises a cross-section through the feature and short lengths of the adjoining host waveguide. A spatial frequency equal to the wavenumber of the desired incident mode multiplied by the sine of the desired incidence angle is prescribed for the element shape functions. An integral representation of the incident mode is used to determine a suitable system of harmonic forces to uniquely excite that mode. These are applied at nodes through the thickness of the host waveguide on one side of the feature. The displacement field is measured at nodes through the thickness of the host waveguide on either side of the feature and decomposed into reflected and transmitted modes. The cases of guided wave transmission in a featureless waveguide and the reflection of guided waves from a free-edge are examined as validation cases. Finally, the results for transmission at an adhesively-bonded stiffener are presented and compared with experimental measurements.
128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3493442View Description Hide Description
It is well known that ultrasound enhances drug delivery to tissues, although there is not a general consensus about the responsible mechanisms. However, it is known that the most important factor associated with ultrasonically-enhanced drug permeance through tissues is cavitation. Here we report results from research conducted using a experimental approach adapted from single bubble sonoluminescence experiments which generates very well defined acoustic fields and allows controlled activation and location of cavitation. The experimental design requires that a biological tissue be immersed inside a highly degassed liquid media to avoid random bubble nucleation. Therefore, live frog bladders were used as the living tissue due to their high resistance to hypoxia. Tissuemembrane permeance was measured using radiolabeled urea. The results show that an increase in tissue permeance only occurs when cavitation is present near the tissuemembrane. Moreover, confocal microscopy shows a direct correlation between permeance increases and physical damage to the tissue.