Index of content:
Volume 128, Issue 6, December 2010
- TRANSDUCTION 
Dynamic behavior of the circular membrane of an electrostatic microphone: Effect of holes in the backing electrode128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3504706View Description Hide Description
Today, several applications require using electrostaticmicrophones in environments and/or in frequency ranges, which are significantly different from those they were designed for. When low uncertainties on the behavior of acoustic fields, generated or measured by these transducers, are required, the displacement field of the diaphragm of the transducers (which can be highly nonuniform in the highest frequency range) must be characterized with an appropriate accuracy. An analytical approach, which leads to results depending on the location of the holes in the backing electrode (i.e., depending on the azimuthal coordinate) not available until now (regarding the displacement field of the membrane in the highest frequency range, up to 100 kHz), is presented here. The holes and the slit surrounding the electrode are considered as localized sources described by their volume velocity in the propagation equation governing the pressure field in the air gap (not by nonuniform boundary conditions on the surface of the backing electrode as usual). Experimental results, obtained from measurements of the displacement field of the membrane using a laser scanning vibrometer, are presented and compared to the theoretical results.
Theoretical and experimental analysis of the electromechanical behavior of a compact spherical loudspeaker array for directivity control128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3500689View Description Hide Description
Sound directivity control is made possible by a compact array of independent loudspeakers operating at the same frequency range. The drivers are usually distributed over a sphere-like frame according to a Platonic solid geometry to obtain a highly symmetrical configuration. The radiation pattern of spherical loudspeaker arrays has been predicted from the surfacevelocitypattern by approximating the drivers membranes as rigid vibrating spherical caps, although a rigorous assessment of this model has not been provided so far. Many aspects concerning compact array electromechanics remain unclear, such as the effects on the acoustical performance of the drivers interaction inside the array cavity, or the fact that voltages rather than velocities are controlled in practice. This work presents a detailed investigation of the electromechanical behavior of spherical loudspeaker arrays. Simulation results are shown to agree with laser vibrometer measurements and experimental sound power data obtained for a 12-driver spherical array prototype at low frequencies, whereas the non-rigid body motion and the first cavity eigenfrequency yield a discrepancy between theoretical and experimental results at high frequencies. Finally, although the internal acoustic coupling affects the drivers vibration in the low-frequency range, it does not play an important role on the radiated sound power.
Pulse mode of operation of a spherical piezoceramic transducer filled with liquid and having a correcting electric circuit128(2010); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3500691View Description Hide Description
By means of a computational method, the possibility of radiating a short acoustic pulse by a transducer in the form of a piezoceramic sphere internally filled with liquid is investigated. An electric inductive–resistive circuit is connected to the electric input of the transducer. Solution is obtained based on scheme-analogs theory for piezoceramic transducers, and spectral Fourier transform theory. The values of parameters of the system, providing minimal durations of radiated signals, are determined. Computation was carried out for different values of relative thicknesses of the transducer wall. The estimates of durations and amplitudes of the acoustic signals radiated into the external medium are obtained.