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Saxophonists tune vocal tract resonances in advanced performance techniques
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10.1121/1.3514423
/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/1/10.1121/1.3514423
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/1/10.1121/1.3514423
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The magnitude of the acoustic impedance, on log scale, of the clarinet and tenor saxophone (Z Bore), shown for fingerings producing the highest notes of the first register for the clarinet (written A#4, 415 Hz, 16 semitones above the lowest note) and tenor saxophone (written D5, trill fingering, 262 Hz, 14 semitones above the lowest note). To facilitate comparison, the frequencies are scaled to f 1, the sounding frequency in each case.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A log–log graph comparing the magnitudes of the peaks in the acoustic impedance of the parallel combination of bore and reed, the latter treated as a pure compliance. The magnitudes of impedance peaks for the clarinet (dark symbols), soprano saxophone (gray symbols), and tenor saxophone (open symbols) are plotted against the nominal sounding frequency. Circles indicate operating resonances used in the instrument’s first register, triangles for the second register, while squares indicate resonances used when playing in the altissimo range (shaded regions). Gray vertical bars indicate the sounding pitch in musical notation.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Right: Photograph of the tenor saxophone mouthpiece modified to measure the acoustic impedance in the player’s mouth during performance. Tube A is attached to the microphone while tube B is attached to the calibrated acoustic current source. Left: The circular inset shows a close-up of the mouthpiece tip, where the circular end of tube A and the rectangular cross section of tube B are visible just above the reed.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Impedance measured in a saxophonist’s mouth, Z Mouth (dark line), while playing the written note C6 (sounding A#4, 466 Hz) and the input impedance of the tenor saxophone, Z Bore, shown with the reed in parallel, Z BoreZ Reed (pale line) for that fingering. Sharp peaks in Z Mouth at 468, 937, and 1405 Hz indicate harmonics of the sounded note emitted into the player’s mouth.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Impedance measured in an expert saxophonist’s mouth, Z Mouth (dark lines), while bugling the 7th, 10th, 11th, and 12th impedance peaks on the tenor saxophone for the fingered note written A#3 (104 Hz). The input impedance of the tenor saxophone, Z Bore, shown with the reed in parallel, Z BoreZ Reed (pale line), for that fingering. Sharp peaks in Z Mouth at 748, 1093, 1211, and 1303 Hz indicate the frequency of the sounded note, labeled as a multiple of the fundamental frequency f 1 (104 Hz).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Representative acoustic impedances Z Mouth (dark line) measured in the vocal tract of an expert saxophonist playing (top) the written note D6 (523 Hz, sounding C5) in the standard range and (middle) the written note C7 (932 Hz, sounding A#5) in the altissimo range of the tenor saxophone (the bottom graph shows its phase). Narrow peaks in Z Mouth (dark line) indicate harmonics of the note sounded, while broad peaks indicate resonances in the mouth. The bore impedances Z Bore for the two fingerings used are shown with a broad, pale line, while the combined acoustic impedance of the player and instrument bore (Z Mouth + Z Bore) is shown using a dashed line. The phase is shown only for the altissimo note.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Frequencies of the second vocal tract resonance plotted against the frequency of the note sounded, for 650 measurements from eight saxophonists (five expert, three amateurs); dark dots are measured for amateurs while open circles indicate experts. The size of each circle represents the magnitude of the acoustic impedance for the measurement (indicative magnitudes are shown in the legend, binned in half decade bands). The vertical line indicates the transition from standard to altissimo range (written F#6 to G6, sounding 659–698 Hz). The diagonal line shows the relationship: Tract resonance frequency = pitch frequency.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Magnitudes of the peaks in acoustic impedance of the tenor saxophone resonance (plotted with reed compliance added in parallel) vs frequency. Dark crosses indicate resonances used in the standard playing range (written A#3 to F#6; 104–659 Hz) with brackets indicating first and second registers. Pale crosses indicate peaks used in the altissimo range (written G6 and above—a vertical line indicates the transition). The magnitudes of impedance peaks measured in the mouth are plotted against sounding pitch; dark dots indicate amateurs and open circles indicate experts.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Changes in vocal tract impedance control the presence of a multiphonic. Impedances measured in the player’s mouth, Z Mouth, for two vocal tract configurations (dark lines) are shown while playing Kientzy’s multiphonic fingering DK 5/6. The impedance of the tenor saxophone bore for that fingering, Z Bore, is shown with the reed compliance in parallel, Z BoreZ Reed (pale line). Two prominent peaks of comparable magnitude are seen at 187 and 214 Hz (frequency components f and g); peak h is at 641 Hz. Sharp peaks in Z Mouth are indicative of frequency components of the sounded note. In configuration 1 (top graph) components are present at 183 (f), 205 (g), 366 (2f), 388 (f + g), 414 (2g), and 576 (2f + g) Hz, while in configuration 2 (bottom graph) components are present at 646 (h), 1292 (2h), and 1938 (3h) Hz.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Changes in vocal tract impedance control the combination of multiphonics sounded. Impedance measured in the player’s mouth, Z Mouth, for two vocal tract configurations (dark line) for playing Kientzy multiphonic fingering DK 104/105. The impedance of the tenor saxophone for that fingering, Z Bore, is shown with the reed compliance in parallel, Z BoreZ Reed (pale line); three prominent peaks of comparable magnitude are seen at 238, 291, and 520 Hz (frequency components f, g, and h). Sharp peaks in Z Mouth are indicative of frequency components of the sounded note. In configuration 1 (top graph) components are observed at 237 (f), 291 (g), 528 (f + g), and 581 (2g) Hz, while in configuration 2 (bottom graph) components are observed at 237 (f), 291 (g), 520 (h), 581 (2g), 824 (f + 2g), 878 (3g), and 1039 (2h) Hz.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The influence of vocal tract impedance on pitch bending. The measured input impedance of the tenor saxophone, Z Bore, shown here with the reed compliance in parallel, Z BoreZ Reed (pale line), and the impedance measured in the mouth, Z Mouth (dark line). The impedance of the reed, Z Reed (dotted line), was calculated from the reed compliance measured in another experiment. Z Load = (Z Mouth + Z Bore) ∥ Z Reed is plotted as a dashed line. In both cases the fingering is for the note written D#6 (sounding C#5, 554 Hz). Sharp peaks in Z Mouth indicate the frequency f 1 of the note sounded. The top graph shows the impedance magnitudes for the note played normally, while the bottom graph shows those played during pitch bending using the same fingering. At this stage of the pitch bend, the sounding frequency is 91 Hz (300 cents, a minor third) below that produced for normal playing.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/1/10.1121/1.3514423
2011-02-02
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Saxophonists tune vocal tract resonances in advanced performance techniques
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/1/10.1121/1.3514423
10.1121/1.3514423
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