Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 1, January 2011
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3506343View Description Hide Description
Waves scattered by a weakly inhomogeneous random medium contain a predominant single-scattering contribution as well as a multiple-scattering contribution which is usually neglected, especially for imaging purposes. A method based on random matrix theory is proposed to separate the single- and multiple-scattering contributions. The experimental setup uses an array of sources/receivers placed in front of the medium. The impulse responses between every couple of transducers are measured and form a matrix. Single-scattering contributions are shown to exhibit a deterministic coherence along the antidiagonals of the array response matrix, whatever the distribution of inhomogeneities. This property is taken advantage of to discriminate single- from multiple-scattered waves. This allows one to evaluate the absorption losses and the scattering losses separately, by comparing the multiple-scattering intensity with a radiative transfer model. Moreover, the relative contribution of multiple scattering in the backscattered wave can be estimated, which serves as a validity test for the Born approximation. Experimental results are presented with ultrasonic waves in the megahertz range, on a synthetic sample (agar–gelatine gel) as well as on breast tissues. Interestingly, the multiple-scattering contribution is found to be far from negligible in the breast around 4.3 MHz.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3518772View Description Hide Description
Reproduction of a given sound field interior to a circular loudspeaker array without producing an undesirable exterior sound field is an unsolved problem over a broadband of frequencies. At low frequencies, by implementing the Kirchhoff–Helmholtz integral using a circular discrete array of line-source loudspeakers, a sound field can be recreated within the array and produce no exterior sound field, provided that the loudspeakers have azimuthal polar responses with variable first-order responses which are a combination of a two-dimensional (2D) monopole and a radially oriented 2D dipole. This paper examines the performance of circular discrete arrays of line-source loudspeakers which also include a tangential dipole, providing general variable-directivity responses in azimuth. It is shown that at low frequencies, the tangential dipoles are not required, but that near and above the Nyquist frequency, the tangential dipoles can both improve the interior accuracy and reduce the exterior sound field. The additional dipoles extend the useful range of the array by around an octave.