Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 1, January 2011
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3500694View Description Hide Description
A recently published one-parameter ground model based on Darcy’s law is here generalized into a two-parameter model which depends on an effective flow resistivity and an effective layer depth. Extensive field measurements of the acoustic impedance of various ground types have been carried out for frequencies in the range from 200 Hz to 2.5 kHz. The model based on Darcy’s law gives an improved fit to the measurements compared to the Delany–Bazley model. It is, in addition, argued on purely theoretical grounds that the suggested model is preferable. In contrast to the Delany–Bazley model it corresponds to a proper causal time-domain model. This is particularly relevant for extrapolation of the models to lower frequencies and for the recently developed harmonized methods intended for use in the implementation of the European Union directive on the assessment and management of environmental noise. The harmonized methods include frequencies down to the 25 Hz third octave band and have the Delany–Bazley ground impedance model as the default choice. The arguments presented here suggest that this default choice should be replaced by the more physically based model from the law of Darcy.