Volume 129, Issue 1, January 2011
Index of content:
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3518769View Description Hide Description
This paper presents a mathematical design methodology for determining the shape of a trumpet air column that has near-perfect harmonicity, whose components are discontinuity-free, and whose input impedance peak heights are balanced over the playing range. The simulation model employed assumes linear wave propagation and uses cylindrical element discretization with a plane wave approximation. Acoustic measurements are made using a test set-up with an estimated relative measurement error of ±3 cents. Comparisons of measured results are given for the presented design (Macaluso trumpet) and the same trumpet air column with the bell replaced by a commercially used generic trumpetbell of unknown shape (Generic trumpet). For acoustic resonance modes 2–13 (233–1515 Hz), the measured root-mean-square (rms) harmonicity deviation is 5 cents for the Macaluso trumpet, whereas it is 18 cents for the Generic trumpet. However, considering the estimated measurement uncertainty, each of those deviations is somewhat over-stated. For that same range of resonances, the rms deviation between measured and calculated resonance frequencies for the Macaluso trumpet is 3 cents, thus validating the presented simulation model and equations.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514423View Description Hide Description
The acoustical impedance spectrum was measured in the mouths of saxophonists while they played. During bugling and while playing in the very high or altissimo range, experienced players tune a strong, but relatively broad, peak in the tract impedance to select which peak in the bore impedance will determine the note. Less experienced players are unable to produce resonances with impedance peaks comparable in magnitude to those of the bore and consequently are unable to play these notes. Experienced players can also tune their tracts to select which combinations of notes are played simultaneously in multiphonics or chords, and to produce pitch bending, a technique in which notes are produced at frequencies far from those of the peak of impedance of the instrument bore. However, in normal playing in the standard range, there is no consistent tuning of the tract resonances. The playing frequency, in all cases, lies close to the peak in the impedance of the reed in parallel with the series combination of the impedances measured in the mouth and the instrument bore on either side of the reed (Z Mouth + Z Bore) ∥ Z Reed.