Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 1, January 2011
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514502View Description Hide Description
This article presents the experimental implementation and results of a hybrid passive/active absorber (smart foam) made up from the combination of a passive absorbent (foam) and a curved polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film actuator bonded to the rear surface of the foam. Various smart foam prototypes were built and tested in active absorption experiments conducted in an impedance tube under plane wave propagation condition at frequencies between 100 and 1500 Hz. Three control cases were tested. The first case used a fixed controller derived in the frequency domain from estimations of the primary disturbance at a directive microphone position in the tube and the transfer function between the control PVDF and the directive microphone. The two other cases used an adaptive time-domain feedforward controller to absorb either a single-frequency incident wave or a broadband incident wave. The non-linearity of the smart foams and the causality constraint were identified to be important factors influencing active control performance. The effectiveness of the various smart foam prototypes is discussed in terms of the active and passive absorption coefficients as well as the control voltage of the PVDF actuator normalized by the incident sound pressure.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514543View Description Hide Description
By exploiting a case regarded as trivial, this paper presents global active noise control using a parametric beam focusing source (PBFS). As with a dipole model, one is used for a primary sound source and the other for a control sound source, the controleffect for minimizing a total acoustic power depends on the distance between the two. When the distance becomes zero, the total acoustic power becomes null, hence nothing less than a trivial case. Because of the constraints in practice, there exist difficulties in placing a control source close enough to a primary source. However, by projecting a sound beam of a parametric array loudspeaker onto the target sound source (primary source), a virtual sound source may be created on the target sound source, thereby enabling the collocation of the sources. In order to further ensure feasibility of the trivial case, a PBFS is then introduced in an effort to meet the size of the two sources. Reflected sound wave of the PBFS, which is tantamount to the virtual sound source output, aims to suppress the primary sound. Finally, a numerical analysis as well as an experiment is conducted, verifying the validity of the proposed methodology.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514375View Description Hide Description
The stability analysis of the adaptation process, performed by the filtered-x least mean square algorithm on weights of active noise controllers, has not been fully investigated. The main contribution of this paper is conducting a theoretical stability analysis for this process without utilizing commonly used simplifying assumptions regarding the secondary electro-acoustic channel. The core of this analysis is based on the root locus theory. The general rules for constructing the root locus plot of the adaptation process are derived by obtaining root locus parameters, including start points, end points, asymptote lines, and breakaway points. The conducted analysis leads to the derivation of a general upper-bound for the adaptation step-size beyond which the mean weight vector of the active noise controller becomes unstable. Also, this analysis yields the optimum step-size for which the adaptive active noise controller has its fastest dynamic performance. The proposed upper-bound and optimum values apply to general secondary electro-acoustic channels, unlike the commonly used ones which apply to only pure delay channels. The results are found to agree very well with those obtained from numerical analyses and computer simulation experiments.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3518729View Description Hide Description
Aircraft noise contours are estimated using model calculations and, due to their impact on land use planning, they need to be highly accurate. During night time, not only the number and dominant types of aircraft may differ from daytime but also the flight paths flown may differ. To determine to which detail these variations in flight paths need to be considered, calculations were performed exemplarily for two airports using all available radar data over 1 year, taking into account their changes over the day. The results of this approach were compared with results of a simpler approach which does not consider such changes. While both calculations yielded similar results for the day and close to the airport, differences increased with distance as well as with the period of day (day < first hour of the night < second hour of the night, respectively, day < evening < night). Only the detailed calculation always accounted for the flight path changes in full detail. Possible legal consequences of such different modeling approaches are estimated, and the model results are compared to monitoring measurements. Finally, the situations for which the simpler approach is sufficiently accurate are ascertained.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514542View Description Hide Description
In this paper a measurement model for general noise reaction (GNR) in response to aircraft noise is developed to assess the performance of aircraft noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction as indicators of this concept. For this purpose GNR is conceptualized as a superordinate latent construct underlying particular manifestations. This conceptualization is empirically tested through estimation of a second-order factor model. Data from a community survey at Frankfurt Airport are used for this purpose (N = 2206). The data fit the hypothesized factor structure well and support the conceptualization of GNR as a superordinate construct. It is concluded that noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction to noise capture a large part of the negative feelings and emotions in response to aircraft noise but are unable to capture all relevant variance. The paper concludes with recommendations for the valid measurement of community reaction and several directions for further research.