Volume 129, Issue 1, January 2011
Index of content:
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
Multiple scattering by cylinders immersed in fluid: High order approximations for the effective wavenumbers129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3504711View Description Hide Description
Acoustic wave propagation in a fluid with a random assortment of identical cylindrical scatterers is considered. While the leading order correction to the effective wavenumber of the coherent wave is well established at dilute areal density (n 0) of scatterers, in this paper the higher order dependence of the coherent wavenumber on n 0 is developed in several directions. Starting from the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) a consistent method is described for continuing the Linton and Martin formula, which is second order in n 0, to higher orders. Explicit formulas are provided for corrections to the effective wavenumber up to O . Then, using the QCA theory as a basis, generalized self-consistent schemes are developed and compared with self-consistent schemes using other dynamic effective medium theories. It is shown that the Linton and Martin formula provides a closed self-consistent scheme, unlike other approaches.
Comparison between maximum radial expansion of ultrasound contrast agents and experimental postexcitation signal results129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3523339View Description Hide Description
Experimental postexcitation signal data of collapsing Definity microbubbles are compared with the Marmottant theoretical model for large amplitude oscillations of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). After taking into account the insonifying pulse characteristics and size distribution of the population of UCAs, a good comparison between simulated results and previously measured experimental data is obtained by determining a threshold maximum radial expansion (R max) to indicate the onset of postexcitation. This threshold R max is found to range from 3.4 to 8.0 times the initial bubble radius, R 0, depending on insonification frequency. These values are well above the typical free bubble inertial cavitation threshold commonly chosen at 2R 0. The close agreement between the experiment and models suggests that lipid-shelled UCAs behave as unshelled bubbles during most of a large amplitude cavitation cycle, as proposed in the Marmottant equation.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3502464View Description Hide Description
The effect of liquid compressibility on the dynamics of a single, spherical cavitating bubble is studied. While it is known that compressibility damps the amplitude of bubble rebounds, the extent to which this effect is accurately captured by weakly compressible versions of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is unclear. To clarify this issue, partial differential equations governing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are numerically solved both inside the bubble and in the surrounding compressible liquid. Radiated pressure waves originating at the unsteady bubble interface are directly captured. Results obtained with Rayleigh–Plesset type equations accounting for compressibility effects, proposed by Keller and Miksis [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68, 628–633 (1980)], Gilmore, and Tomita and Shima [Bull. JSME 20, 1453–1460 (1977)], are compared with those resulting from the full model. For strong collapses, the solution of the latter reveals that an important part of the energy concentrated during the collapse is used to generate an outgoing pressure wave. For the examples considered in this research, peak pressures are larger than those predicted by Rayleigh–Plesset type equations, whereas the amplitudes of the rebounds are smaller.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3518776View Description Hide Description
Ceperley proposed a concept of a traveling wave heat engine [“A pistonless Stirling engine—The traveling wave heat engine,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66, 1508–1513 (1979).] that provided a starting point of thermoacoustics today. This paper verifies experimentally his idea through observation of amplification and strong damping of a plane acoustic traveling wave as it passes through axial temperature gradients. The acoustic power gain is shown to obey a universal curve specified by a dimensionless parameter ωτα; ω is the angular frequency and τα is the relaxation time for the gas to thermally equilibrate with channel walls. As an application of his idea, a three-stage acoustic power amplifier is developed, which attains the gain up to 10 with a moderate temperature ratio of 2.3.