Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 1, January 2011
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514382View Description Hide Description
One goal of fisheries acoustics is to develop objective classification or identification methods to automate allocation of acoustic backscatter to species. Classification schemes rely on consistent relationships for successful apportionment of acoustic backscatter to species. A method is developed that compares frequency-dependent volume backscatter from an acoustical survey of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) to investigate the potential for classifying herring. Predicted backscattering patterns by a Kirchhoff-ray approximation are used to explain the observed relationships and evaluate the potential for classification of multi-frequency data. Combining predicted backscatter with observations of the frequency-dependent volume backscatter gave approximately 40% classification success, which is not sufficient for survey purposes. However, this method highlighted potential consequences that fish orientation may have on classification schemes and density and abundance estimates. This method of comparing multi-frequency volume backscatter appears to be beneficial for detecting behavioral changes by groups of fish, which may be used to select target strength values for density or abundance estimates. Utilizing predicted target strengths from numerical or analytical solutions or approximations, appropriate target strengths could be selected and would provide more accurate estimates of fish density and abundance.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514379View Description Hide Description
During the mid-1980s, calibrated measurements of ambient noise and wind speed were made in the Tongue of the Ocean in the Bahamas to quantify the spectra and statistics of wind-generated noise. This deep basin is topographically isolated from the Atlantic Ocean and, therefore, largely acoustically decoupled from the Atlantic Ocean deep sound channel. The quantitative effects of contaminating (non-surface wind-generated) noisesources within the basin were eliminated by careful measurement and robust statistical analysis methodologies. Above 500 Hz, the spectral slopes are approximately −5 dB per octave and independent of wind speed. Below 500 Hz, the ambient noise is no longer a linear function of wind speed. Below 100 Hz and for wind speeds greater than 18.5 knots (kt), the ambient noise is independent of frequency. The minimum observed ambient noise level falls 13 dB below Urick’s “light shipping” level at 30 Hz and 2–5 dB below Wenz’s sea state zero level through the wind-dominated portion of the spectrum. The basin’s geographical isolation and the rigorous measurement and analysis methodologies employed make this two-decade-old data set a reasonable and justified proxy for pre-industrial era oceannoise levels in the 20 Hz to 20 kHz frequency band.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514416View Description Hide Description
Understanding the formation and evolution of bubble populations is important in a wide range of situations, including industrial processes, medical applications, and ocean science. Passive acoustical techniques can be used to track changes in the population, since each bubble formation or fragmentation event is likely to produce sound. This sound potentially contains a wealth of information about the fragmentation process and the products, but to fully exploit these data it is necessary to understand the physical processes that determine its characteristics. The focus of this paper is binary fragmentation, when turbulence causes one bubble to split into two. Specifically, the effect that bubble-bubble coupling has on the sound produced is examined. A numerical simulation of the acoustical excitation of fragmenting bubbles is used to generatemodelacoustic signals, which are compared with experimental data. A frequency range with a suppressed acoustic output which is observed in the experimental data can be explained when coupling is taken into account. In addition, although the driving mechanism of neck collapse is always consistent with the data for the larger bubble of the newly formed pair, a different mechanism must be driving the smaller bubble in some situations.
Target detection and localization in shallow water: An experimental demonstration of the acoustic barrier problem at the laboratory scale129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514503View Description Hide Description
This study demonstrates experimentally at the laboratory scale the detection and localization of a wavelength-sized target in a shallow ultrasonicwaveguide between two source–receiver arrays at 3 MHz. In the framework of the acoustic barrier problem, at the 1/1000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. The two coplanar arrays record in the time-domain the transfer matrix of the waveguide between each pair of source–receiver transducers. Invoking the reciprocity principle, a time-domain double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays. This array processing projects the multireverberated acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are defined by their launch and arrival angles. Comparison is made between the intensity of each eigenray without and with a target for detection in the waveguide. Localization is performed through tomography inversion of the acoustic impedance of the target, using all of the eigenrays extracted from double beamforming. The use of the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel for each eigenray provides both the localization and the signature of the target. Experimental results are shown in the presence of surface waves, and methodological issues are discussed for detection and localization.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514505View Description Hide Description
Geoacoustic inversion using fluctuating signal observations can be challenging. The origin of these fluctuations needs to be understood so the signals can be used appropriately. A set of experiments [Tang et al., Oceanogr. 20(4), 156–167 (2007)] was carried out in shallow water near the New Jersey shelf break in summer 2006. Significant fluctuations in the direct path and surface-reflected arrivals of short-range chirp transmissions (1.1–2.9 kHz) were observed on a vertical line array. This paper explains the origin of these signal fluctuations through analysis of the arrival amplitudes. It is shown that the strong thermocline combined with an oscillating source motion due to oceansurface waves results in the signal fluctuations.