(Color online) Palate outline and tongue and jaw markers for subject JW11 [s] in sad. The anterior end of the palate is to the right; the x-axis is the intersection of the midsagittal and occlusal planes, with x = 0 mm at the central incisors; the y-axis is perpendicular to the occlusal plane at x = 0 mm. Splines fitted to T1 through T4 are shown, with the black curve at the start of the [s] and palest gray curve at end of [s]. CL and CD are shown. P1 is the point on the palate closest to T1; JW is the jaw pellet.
(Color online) Example illustrating acoustic segmentation of sad as spoken by subject JW11. Top: Speech waveform. Middle: Spectrogram. Bottom: JWy, the y-component of the jaw pellet. Vertical cursor lines in all three graphs indicate (1) frication onset, (2) frication offset, (3) vowel onset, and (4) vowel offset. Max-JY indicates the time at which JWy reaches its maximum height during the [s]; Mid-vowel indicates the midpoint between vowel onset and offset.
The ranges of five pellet positions (not normalized, in head frame), and associated measures CD and CL, during /s/ across temporal frames in different contexts, averaged across subjects.
Means and standard errors of JWy (JY, top row) and T1y in jaw frame (T1Y, bottom row) for nine articulatory frames during /s/, split by phonetic context (see Sec. II C). Left column: High vs low vowel contexts. Right column: /p, t, k/ indicate the place of the following stop consonant.
Means and standard errors of CD (top row) and CL (bottom row) for nine articulatory frames during production of /s/.
Means and standard errors of T3 motion in jaw frame. T3Y (top row) and T3X (bottom row) for nine articulatory frames during [s].
Means and standard errors of lower lip motion. LY (top row) is y-component, LX (bottom row) is x-component; both are in jaw frame, plotted for nine articulatory frames during /s/.
First spectral moment (M1) normalized by each subject’s mean M1 during all /s/ tokens, plotted for nine 30-ms intervals during /s/.
Main effect of time on /s/ in sV and sC. Linear (slope) and quadratic (uniform curvature) coefficients are shown for significant effects (p < 0.01).
Interaction between vowel effect (high/low, front/back, and round/unround) and time trends (linear and quadratic). Linear and quadratic coefficients are shown for significant effects (p < 0.01). Second feature of each pair is reference case.
Comparison between /s/ before C and V in particular word pairs: Street vs seed, school vs sued, special vs said, and special vs sued. Coefficients are shown for results significant at level of p < 0.01. /sC/ word is reference for each case.
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