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Low-frequency sound transmission through a gas–solid interface
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1. L. M. Brekhovskikh and O. A. Godin, Acoustics of Layered Media 1: Plane and Quasi-Plane Waves, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1998), Chaps. 2 and 4.
2. O. A. Godin, “Anomalous transparency of water-air interface for low-frequency sound,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 164301 (2006).
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4. O. A. Godin, “Low-frequency sound transmission through a gas–liquid interface,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 18661879 (2008).
5. B. E. McDonald and D. C. Calvo, “Enhanced sound transmission from water to air at low frequencies,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 31593161 (2007).
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7. L. M. Brekhovskikh and O. A. Godin, Acoustics of Layered Media 2: Point Sources and Bounded Beams, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1999), Chap. 1.
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

(Color online) Sound radiation into gas by a CW point source of (a) and (b) waves within a solid. Dependence of the acoustic power transmitted through a plane air–granite (lines 1and 3) or air–sandstone (lines 2 and 4) interface on the source depth is calculated with (lines 1 and 2) and without (lines 3 and 4) account of attenuation of elastic waves within the solids. is normalized by the power radiated by the same source in the unbounded solid; is the acoustic wave number in gas. Solid and dashed lines correspond to the solids with and without wave attenuation, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

(Color online) Mechanisms of sound transmission into gas. Relative contributions of homogeneous plane elastic waves in a solid (lines 1 and 4), inhomogeneous plane body waves in a solid (lines 2 and 5), and interface waves (lines 3 and 6) into sound radiation into air are shown for a point source of waves within granite with (solid lines) and without (dashed lines) account of attenuation of elastic waves. and are the source depth and acoustic wave number in gas.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

(Color online) Transparency of a gas–solid interface. The ratio of the acoustic power radiated into air to the total emitted power is shown for a point source of waves within granite or sandstone as a function of a non-dimensional source depth. The notations are the same as in Fig. 1 .


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Sound transmission through gas–solid interfaces is usually very weak because of the large contrast in wave impedances at the interface. Here, it is shown that diffraction effects can lead to a dramatic increase in the transparency of gas–solid interfaces at low frequencies, resulting in the bulk of energy emitted by compact sources within a solid being radiated into a gas. The anomalous transparency is made possible by power fluxes in evanescent body waves and by excitation of interface waves. Sound transmission into gas is found to be highly sensitive to absorption of elastic waves within a solid.


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Scitation: Low-frequency sound transmission through a gas–solid interface