Volume 129, Issue 2, February 2011
Index of content:
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
Irregular array motion and extended integration for the suppression of spatial aliasing in passive sonar129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3531811View Description Hide Description
Conventional synthetic aperture processing uses motion of the sonar to increase aperture size and bearing resolution. Two recent papers discussed a different application in which synthetic elements are used to fill in an otherwise sparse passive array. This paper points out that ambiguities persist, even with synthetic elements, in the ideal case of a straight, uniform, sparse line array with constant velocity in the presence of plane wave signals. It is also shown that irregular motion such as acceleration introduces additional information which can be exploited to suppress the ambiguities. The degree of suppression in such an approach is independent of signal direction. If source stability supports extended coherent integration, then the acceleration and integration time required are both modest to achieve interesting levels of suppression. For a less stable source, a modified conventional beamformer is introduced which leverages acceleration over multiple snapshots to suppress the ambiguities. A post-beamformed processing stage involving a nonlinear deconvolution technique such as the CLEAN algorithm can further improve the result. A semi-coherent adaptation of CLEAN is shown to remove the residual ambiguities effectively in the presence of a moderate level of uncorrelated noise.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3365315View Description Hide Description
Cross-correlation methods were applied for the estimation of the power spectral density and modulation spectrum of underwater noise generated by moving vessels. The cross-correlation of the signal from two hydrophones allows the separation of vessel acoustic signatures in a busy estuary. Experimental data recorded in the Hudson River are used for demonstration that cross-correlation method measured the same shipnoise and shipnoise modulation spectra as conventional methods. The cross-correlation method was then applied for the separation of the acoustic signatures of two ships present simultaneously. Presented methods can be useful for ship traffic monitoring and small ship classification, even in noisy harbor environments.