Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 2, February 2011
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3533692View Description Hide Description
The vocal-fold tissue is treated as a transversally isotropic fluid-saturated porous material. Effects of poroelastic coefficients on eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of the vocal-fold vibration are investigated using the Ritz method. The study demonstrates that the often-used elastic model is only a particular case of the poroelastic model with an infinite fluid–solid mass coupling parameter. The elastic model may be considered appropriate for the vocal-fold tissue when the absolute value of the fluid–solid mass coupling parameter is larger than 105 kg/m3. Otherwise, the poroelastic model may be more accurate. The degree of compressibility of the vocal tissue can also been described by the poroelastic coefficients. Finally, it is revealed that the liquid and solid components in a poroelastic model could have different modal shapes when the coupling between them is weak. The mode decoupling could cause desynchronization and irregular vibration of the folds.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3514537View Description Hide Description
Due to its aerodynamic, articulatory, and acoustic complexities, the fricative /s/ is known to require high precision in its control, and to be highly resistant to coarticulation. This study documents in detail how jaw, tongue front, tongue back, lips, and the first spectral moment covary during the production of /s/, to establish how coarticulation affects this segment. Data were obtained from 24 speakers in the Wisconsin x-ray microbeam database producing /s/ in prevocalic and pre-obstruent sequences. Analysis of the data showed that certain aspects of jaw and tongue motion had specific kinematic trajectories, regardless of context, and the first spectral moment trajectory corresponded to these in some aspects. In particular contexts, variability due to jaw motion is compensated for by tongue-tip motion and bracing against the palate, to maintain an invariant articulatory–aerodynamic goal, constriction degree. The change in the first spectral moment, which rises to a peak at the midpoint of the fricative, primarily reflects the motion of the jaw. Implications of the results for theories of speech motor control and acoustic–articulatory relations are discussed.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3531932View Description Hide Description
Two auditory feedback perturbation experiments were conducted to examine the nature of control of the first two formants in vowels. In the first experiment, talkers heard their auditory feedback with either F1 or F2 shifted in frequency. Talkers altered production of the perturbed formant by changing its frequency in the opposite direction to the perturbation but did not produce a correlated alteration of the unperturbed formant. Thus, the motor control system is capable of fine-grained independent control of F1 and F2. In the second experiment, a large meta-analysis was conducted on data from talkers who received feedback where both F1 and F2 had been perturbed. A moderate correlation was found between individual compensations in F1 and F2 suggesting that the control of F1 and F2 is processed in a common manner at some level. While a wide range of individual compensation magnitudes were observed, no significant correlations were found between individuals’ compensations and vowel space differences. Similarly, no significant correlations were found between individuals’ compensations and variability in normal vowel production. Further, when receiving normal auditory feedback, most of the population exhibited no significant correlation between the natural variation in production of F1 and F2.