Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 3, March 2011
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3533734View Description Hide Description
As a basic form of the equivalent source method (ESM) that is used to nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) problems, discrete monopoles are utilized to represent the sound field of interest. When setting up the virtual source distribution, it is vital to maintain a “retreat distance” between the virtual sources and the actual source surface such that reconstruction would not suffer from singularity problems. However, one cannot increase the distance without bound because of the ill-posedness inherent in the reconstruction process with large distance. In prior research, 1–2 times lattice spacing, or the inter-element distance of microphones, is generally recommended as retreat distance in using the ESM-based NAH. While this rule has shown to yield good results in many cases, the optimal choice is a complicated issue that depends on frequency, geometry of the physical source, content of evanescent waves, distribution of sensors and virtual sources, etc. This paper deals about attaining the best compromise between the reconstruction errors induced by the point source singularity; the reconstruction ill-posedness is an interesting problem in its own right. The paper revisits this issue, with the aid of an optimization algorithm based on the golden section search and parabolic interpolation. Numerical simulations were conducted for a baffled planar piston source and a spherically baffled piston source. The results revealed that the retreat distance appropriate for the ESM ranged from 0.4 to 0.5 times the spacing for the planar piston, while from 0.8 to 1.7 times average spacing for the spherical piston. Experiments carried out for a vibrating aluminum plate also revealed that the retreat distance with 0.5 times the spacing yielded better reconstructedvelocity than those with 1/20 and 1 times the spacing.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3531939View Description Hide Description
Several deconvolution algorithms are commonly used in aeroacoustics to estimate the power level radiated by static sources, for instance, the deconvolution approach for the mapping of acoustic sources (DAMAS), DAMAS2, CLEAN, and the CLEAN based on spatial source coherence algorithm (CLEAN-SC). However, few efficient methodologies are available for moving sources. In this paper, several deconvolution approaches are proposed to estimate the narrow-band spectra of low-Mach number uncorrelated sources. All of them are based on a beamformer output. Due to velocity, the beamformer output is inherently related to the source spectra over the whole frequency range, which makes the deconvolution very complex from a computational point of view. Using the conventional Doppler approximation and for limited time analysis, the problem can be separated into multiple independent problems, each involving a single source frequency, as for static sources. DAMAS, DAMAS2, CLEAN, and CLEAN-SC are then extended to moving sources. These extensions are validated from both synthesized data and real aircraft flyover noise measurements. Comparable performances to those of the corresponding static methodologies are recovered. All these approaches constitute complementary and efficient tools in order to quantify the noise level emitted from moving acoustic sources.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3533689View Description Hide Description
Sound reproduction systems using omnidirectional loudspeakers produce reflections from room surfaces which interfere with the desired sound field within the array. While active compensation systems can reduce the reverberant level, they require calibration in each room and are processor-intensive. Directional loudspeakers allow the direct to reverberant level to be improved within the array, but still produce a finite exterior field which reflects from the room surfaces. The use of variable-directivity loudspeakers allows the exterior field to be eliminated at low frequencies by implementing the Kirchhoff–Helmholtz integral equation. This paper investigates the performance of variable-directivity arrays in reducing reverberant levels and compares the results with those derived in a previous paper for fixed-directivity arrays. The results presented may have some impact on the design of commercial multi-channel systems for sound reproduction.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3533690View Description Hide Description
A blind method for suppressing late reverberation from speech and audio signals is presented. The proposed technique operates both on the spectral and on the sub-band domains employing a single input channel. At first, a preliminary rough clean signal estimation is required and for this, any standard technique may be applied; however here the estimate is obtained through spectral subtraction. Then, an auditory maskingmodel is employed in sub-bands to extract the reverberation masking index (RMI) which identifies signal regions with perceived alterations due to late reverberation. Utilizing a selective signal processing technique only these regions are suppressed through sub-band temporal envelope filtering based on analytical expressions. Objective and subjective measures indicate that the proposed method achieves significant late reverberation suppression for both speech and music signals over a wide range of reverberation time (RT) scenarios.